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Tajne odaje, silosi za žitarice i duga, duga povijest piramidalnih teorija zavjere

Godine 867. poslije Krista, europski redovnik po imenu Bernard uhvaćen je na brodu robova iz grada Taranta na jugu Italije. Krenuo je prema Svetoj zemlji, na hodočašće s dvojicom kolega redovnika. Negdje na liniji ipak su odlučili zaobići Egipat. To je za to vrijeme bio prilično normalan plan putovanja. Zapravo, u svojoj knjizi  Čudesne stvari: Povijest egiptologije od antike do 1881, autor Jason Thompson piše da su čak i mnogi križarski ratovi za Svetu zemlju umjesto toga završili pljačku Egipta. Ta bi činjenica mogla uvelike objasniti zašto su Bernard i njegovi prijatelji smjesta bačeni u zatvor u Kairu te su morali podmititi njihov povratak.

Iz ovog prilično nepovoljnog vodiča potječe ono što je vjerojatno prvi zapis o piramidama u Gizi u zapadnoj književnosti.

Bernard, ponavljajući starije tradicionalne priče koje su ispričali ljudi koji nisu iz prve ruke vidjeli piramide, naziva ih "žitnicama" Josepha ’. On odbacuje ime junaka biblijske knjige Postanka, Jakovljevog sina kojeg njegova braća prodaju u ropstvo, a zatim se uspinje na političku moć kao savjetnik egipatskog faraona. (Vjerojatno ga najbolje poznajete kao vlasnika nevjerojatnog Technicolor ogrtača iz snova.)  U jednoj priči, Josip spašava Egipat predviđajući glad i uvjeravajući faraona da unaprijed uskladišti sedam godina vrijedno žita.

Ilustracija Josipa s njegovim žitom (i ogrtačem)), iz knjige iz 1869. godine Povijest Josipa i njegove braće. (Fotografija: Javna domena/WikiCommons)  

Nedavno su se vijesti pojavile o piramidama: Toplinsko skeniranje upravo je pokazalo postojanje “anomalija ” u kamenju u Gizi, ukazujući na prazne prostore, toplije unutarnje struje zraka ili različite građevinske materijale. Mrežni razgovor već se pretvara u nagađanja da je to tajna komora koja skriva bogzna kakva blaga. Prošli tjedan, Buzzfeed objavio je stari video zapis iz 1998. koji prikazuje predsjedničkog kandidata Bena Carsona koji govori o tome kako vjeruje, u biti, u isto ono u što je redovnik Bernard vjerovao prije gotovo 1500 godina. “Moja osobna teorija je da je Josip izgradio piramide za skladištenje žita ", rekao je Carson. “Sada svi arheolozi misle da su napravljeni za grobove faraona ’. Ali, znate, moralo bi biti nešto užasno veliko ako zastanete i razmislite o tome. I ne vjerujem da će s vremenom nestati kako bi se skladištilo toliko žita. ”

Carson je predstavio ovu ideju kao biblijski pogled na povijest. Bernard bi vjerojatno također. No, u stvarnosti, Postanak nikada ne spominje piramide ili bilo što slično njima. Umjesto toga, i Bernard i Carson dio su različite i jednako snažne zapadne tradicije: divlje nagađaju o čudima starog Egipta radi zabave i zarade.

To je velika šatorska ustanova koja obuhvaća svjetovno i vjersko, Atlantiđane i vanzemaljce te ljude koji vjeruju da je Engleska dom izgubljenih izraelskih plemena. Zapravo, datira sve do samog "oca povijesti", Herodota, starogrčkog koji je napisao knjigu od devet svezaka svijeta negdje oko 450. godine prije Krista. Herodot predstavlja svoj rad o Egiptu kao informacije iz prve ruke i, vrlo dugo, sve do 1950-ih, znanstvenici mu općenito nisu vjerovali na riječ. Na kraju su ljudi počeli primjećivati ​​da sve što je Herodot imao reći nema smisla, kaže Ethan Watrall, profesor antropologije na Sveučilištu Michigan State, specijaliziran za egiptologiju i pseudoarheologiju.

Ignacije Donellyjeva karta Atlantidskog Carstva iz njegove knjige Atlantida: pretpotopni svijet, 1882. (Fotografija: Public Domain/WikiCommons)

Na primjer, Herodot opisuje promatranje procesa mumifikacije i kaže da je to uključivalo natapanje leša u kadi ukapljene soli natrona, koja ga je isušila. “Ali kako ste mogli isušiti nešto u tekućini? ” Watrall kaže. “To je#nelogično. ” Danas znamo da su mumije umjesto toga bile isušene tako što su ih prekrile vrećama punim natronskim —VEĆIM verzijama paketa “ NE JEDI ” koje biste mogli pronaći u svom sušenom voću. Herodot je dobro shvatio natron. No, također je očito da nikada nije sam gledao proces mumifikacije.

Herodotova ’ blaga pretjerivanja blijede su u usporedbi s, recimo, djelom Ignacija Donnellyja, potporučnika guvernera Minnesote, predstavnika države 19. stoljeća i atlantskog književnika. Donnelly je zaslužan za popularizaciju ideje da je Platonov vjerojatno alegorijski izgubljeni grad zapravo bio potpuno stvaran, a također i vrlo napredan. Kad je Atlantida pala, napisao je Donnelly, njezine su izbjeglice postale vladari i/ili bogovi i božice svih velikih svjetskih civilizacija, uključujući Egipat. Drevna egipatska kultura imitirala je izgubljenu Atlantidu. Upravo su Atlantiđani projektirali i izgradili piramide.

Ulomak iz Herodota ’ Povijesti, knjiga VIIJa na papirusu, datiran u početak 2. stoljeća poslije Krista. (Fotografija: Javna domena/WikiCommons)

Morate samo uključiti Povijesni kanal da vidite kako se ova nit proteže u naše vlastito vremensko razdoblje —uprkos činjenici da su nam stvarni drevni Egipćani izravno rekli zašto i kako su piramide izgrađene.

“Bili su plodni birokrati. Izgradnja je bila veliki državni poduhvat, projekt javnih radova ", kaže Watrall. “Logistika i ideologija jasno su dokumentirane u tisućama i tisućama tekstova. ”

Pa zašto bi netko vjerovao u Atlantiđane ili mislio da su Egipćani skladištili žito u piramidama? Uostalom, govorimo o jednoj od najdokumentiranijih drevnih civilizacija na svijetu. Zašto ne biste poslušali što govore o sebi?

Prema Watrallu, postoje dva velika razloga zašto stari Egipat privlači grandiozne tvrdnje, nagađanja bez dokaza i insinuacije na zavjeru.   Prvo, imate ljude, poput Carsona, koji vjeruju da je svaka riječ Biblije doslovna povijesna knjiga/enciklopedija. Kad pogledaju mjesto poput Egipta, koje zauzima istaknuto mjesto u Starom zavjetu, žele vidjeti dokaze da je njihov vjerski tekst doista istinit. I to ih vodi od točke A do točke Z —Jozef je izgradio skladišta žita za faraona, silosi za žitarice često su velike zgrade, piramide su velike zgrade, pa su možda piramide silosi za žito. Možda to nije doslovno tumačenje Biblije. reći da je Josip skladištio žito u piramidama, ali želja za biblijskim doslovcem tjera ljude na te logične skokove.

Unutar Velike piramide u Gizi: Kraljevska odaja s  sarkofagom. (Fotografija:  Javna domena/WikiCommons)

Drugi izvor egipatske pseudoznanosti univerzalniji je, ali i zloćudniji. Piramide su, možda ste primijetili, velike —zaista, ludo, nadasve masivne. Stajati u njihovoj sjeni znači biti zadivljen razinom inženjeringa i koordinacije koju malo tko od nas može zamisliti da uspješno poduzima. Stoga odlučujemo vjerovati da to nijedan čovjek nije bio sposoban, a definitivno ne i ljudi koji su živjeli davno, i koji su bili toliko različiti od nas, a očito vrlo zaostali .. “I problem u tome, &# 8221 Watrall kaže, “je da je temeljni ravnatelj u najboljem slučaju visoko etnocentričan, a u najgorem slučaju rasizam. ”

Da su Bernard (i Ben Carson) pobliže pogledali regiju, vidjeli bi izvanredne jasne dokaze da piramide nisu divovski silosi za žitarice. U blizini piramida u Gizi, arheolozi su otkrili Gebel Qibli, grad koji je u osnovi funkcionirao kao trgovačko naselje radnika koji su gradili piramide. Ti su radnici plaćeni u žitu, prikupljeni kao porez plemenitim zemljoposjednicima, kaže Watrall. Gebel Qibli je dom stvarnih skladišta žita u Egiptu. To su kružne konstrukcije od cigle od blata, zapečaćene protiv buba s više blata, ali ne tako zapečaćeno da gljive mogu rasti u ustajalom zraku. “Mogao bih stati usred jednog od njih, ispružiti ruke i to bi bio promjer, "kaže Watrall. “Nisam mogao#8217 ustati. To je#8217 manje od moje visine i ja ’m 6 𔃿 ”.


Rani život kralja Henrika VIII

Henry VIII rođen je 28. lipnja 1491. u Greenwichu, blizu Londona. Bio je drugi sin Henrika VII i Elizabete od Yorka. Njegov otac bio je prvi engleski kralj Tjudora, dok mu je majka bila kći Edvarda IV., Prvog jorkističkog kralja Engleske. Henry je imao starijeg brata, Arthura, koji je rođen 1486.

U dobi od tri godine, Henryjev stariji brat postao je princ od Walesa. Drugim riječima, Arthur je bio određen za nasljednika engleskog prijestolja i stoga je odgojen za kralja. Henry je, s druge strane, bio usmjeren ka crkvenoj karijeri, a njegovo obrazovanje uključivalo je sate teologije, glazbe i poezije.

Godine 1502. Arthur je obolio od znojenja (neki moderni znanstvenici vjeruju da je u pitanju hantavirus) i umro. Kao rezultat toga, Henry je postao novi nasljednik engleskog prijestolja.

1509. umro je Henry VII, a Henry VIII postao je novi kralj Engleske. Šest tjedana nakon krunidbe, Henry se oženio Catherine of Aragon, udovicom njegova brata. Katarina je bila kći Ferdinanda II od Aragona i Izabele I od Kastilje, a bila je zaručena za Arthura kad je imao samo dvije godine.

18-godišnji Henry VIII nakon krunidbe 1509. (P. S. Burton / Javna domena )

Taj bi aranžman bio od koristi novoosnovanoj dinastiji Tudor. Arturov brak s princezom dobro uspostavljene dinastije Trastámara poslužio bi povećanju ugleda Tjudora u Europi. Ugovor o braku između engleske i španjolske strane postignut je 1496. godine, a sklopljen je brak između Arthura i Catherine.

Par se kasnije vjenčao 1501. Nakon Arthurove smrti, Catherine je postala udovica princeza od Walesa, a primljena je u kućanstvo svoje punice, Elizabeth of York. Katarina je kasnije bila zaručena za Henrika i udala se za njega kad je postao kralj.


Antički uzdi i čuvari bitova - povijest

Rimski centurion

Ilustracija rimskog centuriona

U starom Rimu "quotcenturion" je značio "stotinu stotina", a rimski centurion bio je kapetan nad 100 pješaka u legiji. Stotnik je bio odan i hrabar, počeo je kao vojnik u vojsci i napredovao do činova. General ih je primijetio zbog svoje vještine i hrabrosti u borbi, te su ih učinili časnicima.

Rimska vojska sastojala se od tri vrste vojnika: Pretorijanska garda (Cezarova tjelesna straža), Legionari (pješački vojnici i časnici sastavljeni od građana) i Pomoćnici (negrađanske trupe).

Okosnicu rimske vojske činili su centurioni. Stotnici su bili legionari i bili su jasno zapaženi jer su nosili posebnu kacigu i ukrašeniji remen mnogo bolje kvalitete. Nosili su kratki štap od vinove loze kao simbol ranga. Uspjeli su u činovima kao vojnici, a bili su unaprijeđeni zbog predanosti i hrabrosti. Oni su bili veterani vojnici koji su zapovijedali po 100 ljudi, unutar legije od 6.000. Tako je u jednoj legiji bilo 60 stoljeća, svako pod zapovjedništvom stotnika. Za vrijeme Augusta bilo je 28 legija.

Centurion je primao plaću koja je iznosila više od 20 puta više od običnih vojnika, oko 5000 denara godišnje. U legiji je zapravo bilo pet viših centuriona koji su primali 10.000 denara godišnje, a glavni centurion (prvi koplje) godišnje je primao 20.000 denara. Obični vojnik primao je oko 200-300 denara godišnje.

U Isusovo vrijeme sjedište rimske vojske u Judeji nalazilo se u Cezareji, na mediteranskoj obali.

Centurion u biblijskoj enciklopediji - ISBE
sen-tu'-ri-un: Kao što naziv implicira, hekatontarches ili hekatontarchos, kenturion, latinski centurio, bio je zapovjednik stotinu ljudi, manje-više, u rimskoj legiji. Matej i Luka koriste grčku riječ, dok Marko preferira latinski oblik, kao i u slučaju drugih riječi, budući da je pisao prvenstveno za rimske čitatelje. Broj stotnika u legiji bio je 60, što je u svim epohama broj stoljeća, iako se broj razlikovao u kohorti ili speiri. Uobičajene dužnosti centuriona bile su bušiti njegove ljude, pregledavati njihovo oružje, hranu i odjeću i zapovijedati im u logoru i na terenu. Centurioni su ponekad bili zaposleni na odvojenim službama čiji su uvjeti u provincijama pomalo nejasni. Ljudi poput Kornelija i Julija (Djela apostolska 10: 1 27: 1) možda su bili odvojeni od legije kojoj su pripadali radi obavljanja posebnih dužnosti. Njih i druge stotnike spomenute u Evanđeljima i Djelima (Mt 8: 5 Mk 15:39, 44, 45 Lk 23:47) sveti pisci predstavljaju u povoljnom svjetlu. Pročitajte cijeli članak

Centurion u Eastonovom biblijskom rječniku
Rimski časnik koji je zapovijedao sa stotinu ljudi (Marko 15:39, 44, 45). Kornelije, prvi poganski obraćenik, bio je stotnik (Djela apostolska 10: 1, 22). Ostali stotnici spominju se u Mateju. 8: 5, 8, 13 Luka 7: 2, 6 Djela apostolska 21:32 22:25, 26 23:17, 23 24:23 27: 1, 6, 11, 31, 43 28:16. Stotnik je promatrao raspeće našeg Gospodina (Matej 27:54 Luka 23:47), a kad je vidio čuda koja mu se pridružuju, uzviknuo je: "Zaista je ovaj čovjek bio Sin Božji." o kojima se govori u smislu hvale, bilo u Evanđeljima ili u Djelima. Zanimljivo je to usporediti s izjavom Polibija (vi. 24), da su stotnici birani po zaslugama, pa su tako i ljudi bili izvanredni ne toliko svojom odvažnom hrabrošću koliko svojom promišljenošću, postojanošću i snagom uma. & Quot , NT Hist. Dr. Macleara. Pročitajte cijeli članak

Biblijska definicija centuriona u Faussetovom biblijskom rječniku
Prikladnost je u Novom zavjetu što se centurioni tako često pozitivno primjećuju. Dobro ponašanje općenito je bilo uzrok njihovog promicanja u zapovjedništvo stoljeća (ispravno 100 ljudi). Istinska iskrenost učinila bi ih otvorenim za uvjerenje. Na primjer, onaj čiju vjeru Isus tako hvali u Mateju 8 Kornelija, kojemu je Petar vizijom poslan i koji je opisan kao "pobožan, koji se boji Boga sa svom svojom kućom, daje mnogo milostinje ljudima i uvijek se moli Bogu" ( Djela apostolska 10) Julije, stotnik Augustove skupine, koji je ljubazno molio Pavla i spasio mu život kad su mu vojnici prijetili (Djela 27: 1 Djela 27: 3-42 Djela apostolska 27:43). U Dj 24:23 prevedite "stotnika", naime, zapovjednika konja koji je dovezao Pavla u Cezareju nakon što se drugi od dva centuriona vratio s pješaštvom (usporedi Djela 23:23 Djela 23:32). Stotnik na Gospodnjem raspeću izgovorio je svjedočanstvo tako izvanredno od pogana: & quot; sigurno je to bio pravednik & quot; Lukino objašnjenje (Luka 23:47) o tome što bi poganin mislio reći govoreći & quot; zaista je ovo bio Sin Božji & quot (Matej 27:54) ). Pročitajte cijeli članak

Rimska vojska u Smithovu biblijskom rječniku
Rimska vojska bila je podijeljena na legije, čiji se broj znatno razlikovao (od 3000 do 6000), svaka ispod šest tribuna (& quotchief kapetani, & quot)
Dj 21:31 koji je zapovijedao naizmjence. Legija je podijeljena na deset kohorti (& quotband, & quot) Ac 10: 1, kohortu na tri manipulisa, a manipul na dva stoljeća, koji je sadržavao izvorno 100 ljudi, kako to naziv implicira, ali kasnije od 50 do 100 ljudi, prema snaga legije. Tako je u jednoj legiji bilo 60 stoljeća, svako pod zapovjedništvom stotnika. Djela 10: 1,22 Mt 8: 5 27:54 Osim legionarskih kohorti, prema rimskim standardima služile su i neovisne kohorte dobrovoljaca. Jedna od tih skupina nazvana je Talijanska, Ac 10: 1 jer se sastoji od dobrovoljaca iz Italije. Sjedište rimskih snaga u Judeji bilo je u Cezareji. Pročitajte cijeli članak


Kirasa rimskog centuriona ukrašena s 9 srebrnih falera (medaljoni ili hrabrosti)

Nije lako protresti centuriona

A kad je Isus ponovno zavapio iz svega glasa, odustao je od svog duha. U tom trenutku zastor hrama bio je razderan na dva dijela od vrha do dna. Zemlja se tresla i stijene su se rascijepile. Grobnice su se otvorile i tijela mnogih svetih ljudi koji su umrli oživjela su. Izašli su iz grobova, a nakon Isusova uskrsnuća otišli su u sveti grad i ukazali se mnogim ljudima. Kad su stotnik i oni s njim koji su čuvali Isusa vidjeli potres i sve što se dogodilo, prestrašili su se i uzviknuli: "Sigurno je on bio Božji Sin!" (Matej 27: 50-54)

Zamislite strah nadahnut odredom rimskih legionara koji je umarširao u vaše selo. Tlo tutnji ispod stotinu vojnika naoružanih mačem, štitom i oklopom dok se kreću vašom ulicom. Cijela jedinica se kreće kao jedna. Nijedan vojnik ne razmišlja o vlastitim izborima, već se kreće kao jedinstvena cjelina. Uz bok jašući se na ponosnom konju nalazi stotnik. Odlikuje se odjećom i karakterom. On je jedan koji je zaslužnim zaslugama prošao put do pozicije pouzdanog autoriteta. Začinjen bitkom i provođenjem zakona u stotinama sela diljem Carstva, oči su mu ispunjene dubokim znanjem. On ima zaduženje i dužnost da to izvrši i malo ga pokreće mišljenje bilo kojeg ljudskog duha.

Jedan centurion, koji bi bio običan dan održavanja reda, bio je svjedok dana koji je potresao grad i svijet. Možda je čuo za Isusa iz Nazareta ili je čak vidio mnoštvo koje ga je slijedilo. Možda je čak bio i poznanik centuriona čijeg je slugu Krist izliječio. (Mat 8) Zasigurno je vidio ogromnu gomilu gledajući ovo raspeće. Vidio je kako neki plaču, a drugi se rugaju. Vidio je znak iznad glave: "Ovo je Isus. Židovski kralj & quot Čak je čuo da je Krist obećao jednome od drugih razapetih lopova pored njega obećanje raja! Mora da je bilo puno razmišljanja i razmatranja iza njegovog pogleda čeličnih očiju dok je sa svojim vojnicima stajao i promatrao ovaj jezivi događaj.

Po čemu je ovaj Isus bio tako poseban? Još jedan židovski ekstremista koji razbija rulje? Ali nekako se ne uklapa u profil. I zašto ga svećenici i vjernici toliko mrze? Zašto su toliko ugroženi? Usred misli odjednom je Isus pročistio grlo i povikao: "Gotovo je!" I odustaje od svog duha kao da je to odabrao i naumio. (Ivan 19:30) Zatim snažan potres! Sve se trese! Glasni i dramatični valovi zemljine pokretne snage tutnje kroz svaku dušu izazivajući užas, vriskove blizu i daleko. panika ljudi koji trče, konji koji se bacaju, ptice bježe i kamenje koje pada.

Stotnik donosi mjerodavnu odluku. & quot; Sigurno je bio Sin Božji! & quot Izjava koju su njegovi ljudi i drugi sigurno čuli, samo je dodala osjećaj slutnje strahopoštovanja. Ovog dana i stijene i povijest su se podijelile na dva dijela i Bog je svakom čovjeku počeo postavljati pitanje i izbor: & quotNo što je s tobom. Tko mislite da sam ja? & Quot (Mat. 16:15)

Ruga se ponosnim rugalicama, ali daje milost skromnima. Mudre izreke 3:34


Biblija spominje & quotcenturion & quot:

Djela apostolska 10: 1 - U Cezareji je bio neki čovjek po imenu Kornelije, a centurion benda koji se zove talijanski [bend],

Djela apostolska 10:22 - A oni rekoše: Kornelije centurion, pravednog čovjeka, i onoga koji se boji Boga, i dobrog izvještaja među svim židovskim narodom, sveti je anđeo upozorio od Boga da te pošalje u svoju kuću i da čuje tvoje riječi.

Marko 15:44 - I Pilat se začudi da je već bio mrtav: i dozivajući ga centurion, upitao ga je je li već bio mrtav.

Luka 7: 6 - Zatim je Isus otišao s njima. A kad je sada bio nedaleko od kuće, centurion poslao mu je prijatelje i rekao mu: "Gospodine, ne muči se sam; jer nisam dostojan da uđeš pod moj krov.

Matej 8: 8 - The centurion odgovorio i rekao: "Gospodine, nisam dostojan da uđeš pod moj krov. Ali reci samo riječ, i moj će sluga ozdraviti."

Djela apostolska 27: 1 - A kad je odlučeno da uplovimo u Italiju, isporučili su Pavla i neke druge zatvorenike [jednome] po imenu Julius, centurion Augustusovog benda.

Matej 8:13 - I Isus reče centurion, Idi svojim putem i kako si vjerovao, [neka] neka ti bude. I njegov je sluga ozdravio u istom času.

Djela apostolska 28:16 - A kad smo došli u Rim, centurion isporučio je zarobljenike kapetanu straže: ali Pavao je morao sam boraviti s vojnikom koji ga je držao.

Djela apostolska 22:25 - I dok su ga vezali tangama, Pavao je rekao centurion koji je stajao po strani: Je li vam dopušteno bičevati čovjeka koji je Rimljanin i nije osuđen?

Djela apostolska 22:26 - Kada centurion Kad je to čuo, otišao je i rekao glavnom kapetanu govoreći: "Pazi što činiš: ovaj je čovjek Rimljanin."

Djela apostolska 27:11 - Ipak centurion vjerovao je gospodar i vlasnik broda, više od onih stvari koje je Pavao govorio.

Djela apostolska 27:43 - Ali centurion, spremni spasiti Pavla, čuvao ih je od [njihove] namjere i naredio da se oni koji znaju plivati ​​prvo [bace] [u more], i stignu na kopno:

Matej 27:54 - Sada kada je centurion, i oni koji su bili s njim, gledajući Isusa, vidjeli su potres i ono što se dogodilo, jako su se bojali govoreći: "Zaista je ovo bio Sin Božji."

Djela apostolska 24:23 - I naredio je a centurion da zadrži Pavla i pusti ga [na slobodu] i da nikome od svojih poznanika ne smije zabraniti da služi ili dolazi k njemu.

Djela apostolska 27: 6 - I tu je centurion pronašao Aleksandrijski brod koji uplovljava u Italiju i stavio nas je tamo.

Djela apostolska 27:31 - rekao je Paul centurion i vojnicima, osim ako oni borave u brodu, ne možete se spasiti.

Matej 8: 5 - A kad je Isus ušao u Kafarnaum, došao mu je a centurionmoleći ga,

Marko 15:39 - A kad je centurion, koji je stao nasuprot njemu, vidio da je tako zavapio i odustao od duha, rekao je: "Zaista je ovaj čovjek bio Sin Božji."

Marko 15:45 - A kad je znao [za] to centurion, predao je tijelo Josipu.

Luka 23:47 - Sada kada je centurion vidio što se dogodilo, slavio je Boga govoreći: "Ovo je zasigurno bio pravednik."

Biblija također spominje mnogo o "vojnicima":

Ivan 19:23 - Onda vojniks, kad su razapeli Isusa, uzeli su njegovu odjeću i napravili četiri dijela za svaki vojnik dio i također [njegov] kaput: sada je kaput bio bez šava, cijelo tkan od vrha.

Djela apostolska 10: 7 - A kad je anđeo koji je govorio Korneliju otišao, pozvao je dvojicu svojih kućnih slugu i pobožnog vojnik od onih koji su ga neprestano čekali

Djela apostolska 28:16 - A kad smo došli u Rim, centurion je zarobljenike predao kapetanu straže: ali Pavao je patio da sam stanuje s vojnik to ga je zadržalo.

2. Timoteju 2: 3 - Stoga podnosite tvrdoću, kao dobro vojnik Isusa Krista.

2. Timoteju 2: 4 - Nijedan čovjek koji ratuje ne petlja se sa životnim poslovima da bi udovoljio onome koji ga je izabrao za vojnik.

Ivan 19:24 - Rekoše dakle među sobom: "Nemojmo ga rubati, nego bacimo ždrijeb za njega, čiji će to biti: da se ispuni Sveto pismo, koje kaže:" Odijelo su mi podijelili među sobom, a za moje odijelo bacili su ždrijeb. Ove su stvari stoga vojnici učinio.

Ezra 8:22 - Jer bilo me sram zahtijevati od kralja bandu vojnici i konjanici da nam pomognu protiv neprijatelja na putu, jer smo razgovarali s kraljem, govoreći: Ruka našeg Boga [je] nad svima onima koji ga traže, ali njegova moć i njegov gnjev [su] na sve njih to ga je napustilo.

Djela apostolska 23:23 - I pozva [ga] dva centuriona, govoreći: Pripremite dvjesto vojnici otići u Cezareju, a konjanici trideset i deset, i kopljanici dvjesto u treći noćni sat

Ivan 19:23 - Onda vojnici, kad su razapeli Isusa, uzeli su njegovu odjeću i napravili četiri dijela, svakom vojniku po dio i također [njegov] kaput: sada je kaput bio bez šava, utkan odozgo po cijelom.

Djela apostolska 23:10 - A kad je došlo do velikog nesporazuma, glavni kapetan, bojeći se da ih Pavao ne bi trebao raskomadati, naredio je vojnici da siđe i da ga silom odvede među njih i da ga uvede u dvorac.

2. Ljetopisa 25:13 - Ali vojnici vojske koju je Amazija poslao natrag da ne idu s njim u bitku, pala je na gradove Jude, od Samarije do Betorona, pobila ih je tri tisuće i uzela mnogo plijena.

1. Ljetopisa 7:11 - Svi su ti Jediaelovi sinovi, po glavama svojih otaca, hrabri junaci, bili sedamnaest tisuća i dvije stotine [vojnici], sposoban za izlazak u rat [i] bitku.

Djela apostolska 12: 6 - A kad bi ga Herod izveo, iste je noći Petar spavao između dvoje vojnici, svezana s dva lanca: a čuvari pred vratima držali su zatvor.

Izaija 15: 4 - I Hešbon će zaplakati, i Elealeh: njihov će se glas čuti čak do Jahaza: zato oružani vojnici od Moaba će zavapiti, život će mu biti težak.

1. Ljetopisa 7: 4 - I s njima, po njihovim generacijama, nakon kuće njihovih očeva, [bili su] bendovi vojnici za rat, šest i trideset tisuća [muškaraca]: jer su imali mnogo žena i sinova.

Djela apostolska 12: 4 - I kad ga je uhvatio, strpao ga je u zatvor i predao ga u četiri četvrti vojnici kako bi ga nakon Uskrsa namjeravao izvesti pred ljude.

Luka 3:14 - I vojnici isto su od njega zahtijevali govoreći: "Što ćemo učiniti? A on im reče: Ne činite nikome nasilje, nemojte kriviti nikoga i budite zadovoljni svojom plaćom.

Matej 28:12 - A kad su se okupili sa starješinama i savjetovali se, dali su veliki novac vojnici,

Ivan 19: 2 - I vojnici preplete krunu od trnja i stavi mu ga na glavu, te mu obukoše ljubičastu haljinu,

Ivan 19:34 - Ali jedan od vojnici s kopljem probodenim u bok i odmah je izašlo krv i voda.

Matej 8: 9 - Jer ja sam čovjek pod vlašću, koji ima vojnici ispod mene: i kažem ovom [čovjeku]: Idi, a on ide i drugom: Dođi, dođe on i mome slugi: Učini to, i on učini.

Marko 15:16 - I vojnici odveo ga u dvoranu, nazvanu Pretorijum i sazivaju cijeli bend.

Luka 7: 8 - Jer i ja sam čovjek pod vlašću koji ima pod sobom vojnici, i ja kažem jednome: Idi, a on ide, a drugome: Dođi, dođe on i mome slugi: Učini to i učini [to].

Djela apostolska 23:31 - Onda vojnici, kako im je naređeno, uzeli su Pavla i doveli ga noću u Antipatris.

Djela apostolska 27:31 - rekao je Pavao stotniku i vojnici, Osim što oni borave u brodu, ne možete se spasiti.

Djela apostolska 27:42 - I vojnici'Savjet je bio ubiti zatvorenike kako netko od njih ne bi isplivao i pobjegao.

Luka 23:36 - I vojnici također mu se rugao, došavši k njemu i ponudivši mu ocat,

Djela apostolska 21:35 - A kad je došao na stepenice, dogodilo se da je rođen vojnici za nasilje ljudi.

Ivan 19:32 - Onda je došlo vojnici, i slomiti noge prvom, i drugom koji je s njim bio razapet.

Djela apostolska 12:18 - Čim je došao dan, nije bilo male pobune među vojnici, što je postalo s Petrom.

Djela apostolska 27:32 - Onda vojnici odrežite užad čamca i pustite je da otpadne.

Matej 27:27 - Onda vojnici namjesnika odveo je Isusa u zajedničku dvoranu i okupio k njemu cijeli zbor [od vojnici].

Djela apostolska 21:32 - Tko je odmah uzeo vojnici i stotnika i potrčali su do njih. Kad su vidjeli glavnog kapetana i vojnici, napustili su premlaćivanje Pavla.


Čuvari povijesti


Grioti drže uspomenu na Zapadnu Afriku. Na festivalu koji obilježava postavljanje regionalnog poglavara u Faraba Banti u listopadu 1991., pjeva griota Adama Suso, a Ma Lamini Jobareth svira koru.

U zapadnoj Africi pisana povijest je nešto novo. Afrička povijest pisana je na europskim jezicima tijekom kolonijalnog doba, počevši od kasnih 1800 -ih, a stoljećima je prisutna na arapskom jeziku. No, društva u regijama Sahel i Savanna u zapadnoj Africi dugo su čuvala svoju povijest, na svojim jezicima, usmeno, u obliku epova.

Zamislite da se oslanjate na nečije sjećanje da biste čuvali povijest svojih ljudi. U mnogim dijelovima Zapadne Afrike ovaj posao obavlja griot.

Velikani - majstori riječi i glazbe, Tom Hale ih naziva u svojoj knjizi, Griots i Griottes- postoje tisućljeće. S vremenom se funkcija griota mijenjala kako se društvo razvijalo. Nekada su muški grioti i ženske griote bili povjesničari, rodoslovci, savjetnici plemstva, zabavljači, glasnici, pjevači hvale - popis se može nastaviti. Danas nastupaju na televiziji i radiju te snimaju CD -ove. Mnogi su popularni pjevači koji reinterpretiraju tradicionalne pjesme, dajući starim riječima novo značenje - "vremensko vezivanje", naziva ga Hale. Kao izvođači, grioti i griote vrlo su traženi, ne samo za ceremonije i zabave u Zapadnoj Africi, gdje su se tradicionalno pojavljivali, već i diljem svijeta. Ovdje u Sjedinjenim Državama obilaze sveučilišta kako bi dali uvid u zapadnoafričku kulturu. U nastupu u Penn State -u 1978., griotte Dionton Tounkara i njezin suprug, Sekou Kouyaté izveli su hvalevrijednu pjesmu u kojoj su imenovani neki ljudi iz publike, uključujući Hale, koja je pozvala grupu.

Otac siromašnih ljudi
Suprug lijepih dama
U čijoj odsutnosti grad nije zanimljiv
Zbog čijeg odsustva ljudi nisu sretni


Budi nam majka
Budi nam otac
Opskrbi nas odjećom
Budite sol koja nam je potrebna za umak
Budite ulje koje nam je potrebno za kašu

Vi ste naše oči
Ti si naše ogledalo
Vi ste naše ruke i noge
Koje koristimo za hodanje.

Haleova karijera kao učenjaka afričke književnosti započela je pjesmom hvale poput ove. Od 1964. do 1966., nakon završetka studija B.A. na francuskom jeziku na Sveučilištu Tufts, Hale je volontirao s mirovnim korpusom Sjedinjenih Država i poslan je u Niger, zapadna Afrika, da radi s poljoprivrednim zadrugama kojima trebaju govornici francuskog jezika. Rano jednog jutra čudni zvukovi iz susjednog imanja izazvali su ga iz sna. Ustao je istražiti i otkrio da muškarac glasno pjeva svom susjedu. "Nisam znala što radi, pa sam ga zamolila da šuti", kaže Hale. Pjevač je ignorirao Halea i nastavio sa svojom pjesmom. "Pa sam se vratio i ponovo pogledao, a tu je bila i moja susjeda koja je čovjeku dala veliki ručno tkani pokrivač." Poklon od deke bio je oblik zahvale - nagrada za griotovu pjesmu. Incident bi godinama utjecao na Halein život.

Počeo je predavati afričku književnost u Penn Stateu 1973. Godine 1980., shvativši da vrlo mali broj instruktora predaje književnost prije kolonijalne ere, vratio se u Niger da proučava i snima grube pjesme. "Few people in the west seemed to know much about the many functions of the griot, and I thought this may be a way of deepening the understanding of African literature."

Hale, now holder of the Liberal Arts professorship in African, French, and Comparative Literature, and head of the French department at Penn State, has been studying the epics of West Africa ever since. He returned to Niger yet again in 1987 and then again in 1989 to interview griots and griottes and research the texts of these long poetic narratives. He believes that by studying these epics, we can learn much about the way people view their past and achieve an understanding of their society today.

Who holds your history? Who tells your story?

The griot profession is inherited, passed on from one generation to the next. "Griots are very different from the rest of society—almost a different ethnic group," says Hale. They are both feared and respected by people in West Africa for their wisdom and talent with words. They can sing your praises, but they can also sing your doom.

My master has requested that I ask you the exact meaning of your name Da.
Is it Da Guinea hemp?
Is it Da clay pot?
Is it Da the syphilis?
Is it Da the mouth?
Is it Da the door?
Is it Da do you sleep there?
If you are a pot, Kaarta Tiema will break you.
If you are Guinea worms he will harvest you in order to give you to his fishermen who will make nets of you.
If you are syphilis, he will treat you with a red hot iron.
If you are a mouth, he will rip you open to your ears.
If you are a door, he will close you for good and you will never serve for any pathway.
If you are sleeping there, he will stand you up like a house at the top of a hill.
That's what my master put in my mouth with the order to spit right into your face.

In return for their services, griots receive gifts. There is no set fee. They never know what they will get. Sometimes a few coins, sometimes a blanket, sometimes much more. In one reported case, a wealthy admirer gave the Malian griotte Kandia Kouyaté a small airplane so that she could fly directly to his airstrip whenever he wanted to hear the praise song she had written for him.


Griots hold the memory of West Africa. At the festival marking the installation of a regional chief in Faraba Banta on October 1991 (previous page), griotte Adama Suso sings and Ma Lamini Jobarth plays the kora. Above, Tom Hale interviews griot Ayouba Tessa in 1981.

Good griots must have remarkable memories and be ever ready to recite or sing long histories, genealogies, and praise songs. They must also be musically talented. Hale describes their training as comparable to that of receiving a doctoral degree. To become a griot you must learn genealogies and histories, but not just the words, also the music. You can't separate the musical art from the vocal art without losing the overall effect. Griots often play a 21-stringed instrument called a kora. The kora is described as a bridge-harp with two rows of strings, one on either side of the meter-long neck, and a body made of a calabash. The sound of the kora has no American equivalent, and is as unusual as its structure. Hale describes it as sounding "a little bit like flamenco guitar," and in fact griot Keba Cissoko played the kora in this January's New York Guitar Festival's Guitar Marathon.

Training for a griot begins within the family unit, with boys and girls learning from their griot parents, and then moves on to a formal griot school, and then to an apprenticeship with a master griot. Both boys and girls can train to be griots, although griottes may have less freedom to travel and train because of family obligations.

Who holds your history? Who tells your story? Who is your voice?

Until Hale began researching the songs of the griotte in 1991, most research focused on the male griot, the assumption being that in patriarchal West Africa, the griotte played a lesser role, standing by while the griot recited, or perhaps singing only short choruses throughout a song.

It appeared that the women of West Africa had no voice. Hale and his former student, now colleague, Aissata Sidikou-Morton, believe that the reason we did not hear these female voices was that we weren't listening.

Sidikou-Morton, a native of Niger, came to Penn State to do her doctoral thesis on women singers in Niger, Senegal, and Gambia. "The West has said that African women never had a voice. They think that African women never had a voice because they never wrote it down," says Sidikou-Morton. She has been working to write down the songs of griottes and other female singers of West Africa because the people who know these songs are disappearing. "I want my children to know," she says. And she wants to show to the world the voice of African women.

"In African literature, orality is still the most important form of literature on the continent," Sidikou-Morton says, "because it is not everyone who can understand and read French and English. If you compare the oral literature here to the literature of other women in other cultures, you will see similarities. They are saying the same things about what it is like to be a woman, to be a human being.

"And the songs are beautiful and challenging—challenging to society, and challenging as a form of literature. With orality there is a lot women are saying. It is comparable to any written literature. It is expression, communication, and exchange."

Hale agrees. "The reality is that women do have voices in this region. If you study the texts of the songs women in these regions sing, you find that the songs reveal much about the women singing them. These women are empowered in what appears to be a male-dominated society. These songs are not simply entertainment," says Hale. "Women are saying something in these songs."

Griottes traditionally sing at ceremonies, celebrations, and special occasions. When a woman is to be married, griottes sing to her to prepare her for her new life. They sing to prepare her for the trouble she may encounter in the new marriage, and to reassure her that if it gets too bad, she can come home.

Stop crying, bride.
Stop crying and listen to me.
If your mother-in-law abuses you,
Just cry, but don't say anything.
If your sisters or brothers-in-law abuse you,
Just cry but don't say anything.
If your husband's mother abuses you,
Just cry, but don't say anything,
But leaving your house is not a crime.

Do griottes sing epics? It is widely believed that the African epic, a long (sometimes hours, even days long) narrative of history and genealogy, battles and political uprisings, is sung only by griots, by the men. Women joined in only to sing certain parts or to play musical accompaniment. But Sidikou-Morton has recorded a griotte performing an epic, and both Hale and Sidikou-Morton have found that modern griottes are composing their own epics for African women.


Tom Hale met with griot Ayouba Tessa again in Niger in 1987. Modern griots give new meaning to old words, a function Hale calls "time binding."

Another long poetic narrative form that West African women sing is called the saabi. The saabi reveals the nature of relationships between men and women. Sidikou-Morton describes the saabi as a "subversive epic," because it challenges male superiority.

In one saabi, called "The Wicked Man," a new bride, suspicious of her husband's intentions because he has divorced many women in the past, gets the jump on him before he can divorce her. She goes out to plant millet with him and as he walks in front of her digging holes for the seeds, she secretly throws the seeds away. When he believes the planting is done, he has no more use for his wife and so divorces her. But when he tells her to go, she tells him that she divorced him already.

She laughed and said,
"You did not divorce me first
"I first divorced you."
She said, "as for a woman, if a man can think of ten tricks,"
She said, "one trick from a woman will trump his."

She tells him to go to his farm in four days, and then he will know that she was the one who divorced him first. When he goes to his farm, he finds that, while all around him his neighbors have sprouts, he has none. The narrator explains the meaning:

It is said by Allah that whatever a man can do
A woman knows how to trick better
A deceiving and nasty man,
And whatever you do out of wickedness
A woman can definitely outdo you

Hale and Sidikou-Morton, now assistant professor of French at Princeton University, are working together on a project called "Women's Voices from West Africa" to collect and analyze praise songs, epics, and other poetic forms sung by women, not just griottes, but all women, in the West African Sahel and Savanna regions. West African women sing songs to give comfort, encouragement, and empowerment to other women, says Sidikou-Morton. They sing about independence and self-reliance. They sing about what it is like to be a woman in this society. They sing about relationships with husbands and with in-laws.

Many of the researchers involved in this project have come across women's songs in West Africa as a by-product of research on other features of the society. Others, like Sidikou-Morton, have studied the songs extensively. Out of their collaboration will come a volume of edited papers, a synthesis of all current research, an anthology of selected songs in English, Wolof, Bamana, and Hausa (languages of West Africa), and a Web site with the text of the songs, as well as video and audio snippets of griottes performing.

Hale believes that studying the texts of these songs, most of which are thus far untranslated and unpublished, could offer an understanding of what West African women are saying, and of how that reflects their role in society. "Women have always had power in society through singing. What we don't understand is the nature of that power. As we study all of the wedding songs across different regions, and if we find that they say the same thing, we may find that women collectively have far more power then anyone imagined."


The Curious Acambaro Figurines: Did Dinosaurs Live Among Us?

A famous Acámbaro figurine depicting a human apparently riding a dinosaur. ( Creative Commons)

In 1944, the German shopkeeper Valdemar Julsrud claimed to have stumbled upon mysterious figurines while on horseback near Acámbaro in Guanajuato, Mexico. He said that he found over 30,000 of them with the help of a farmer. The figurines depict dinosaurs and humans living together and strange figurines that many people say resemble flying saucers and even aliens. Their authenticity has been debated ever since.

Those who believe that the artifacts are genuine are: cryptozoologists who say that the figurines are evidence of a relict population of dinosaurs in the region who happened to come into contact with humans, those who believe that the figurines were left behind by interdimensional aliens who could travel back to the time of the dinosaurs and bring knowledge of them to Central American peoples, and young earth creationists who claim that humans and dinosaurs had to coexist to fit in with their interpretation of Genesis chapters 1-11 in the Bible.

Thermoluminescence dating was used on some figurines between 1969 and 1972 and produced a date of about 4500 years BP (Before Present), placing the age of the artifacts around 2500 BC. However, studies in 1976 and 1978 revealed that the figurines did not meet the temperature conditions required for reliable thermoluminescence dating. The dates that could be attained revealed that the objects were from the late 1930s or early 1940s - shortly before they were “discovered”.


Ancient Time Keepers

Do you often wish you could throttle the folks who invented time and time keeping devices? These contraptions cut into your leisure time by making it almost impossible to enjoy &ldquoa nice relaxing day&rdquo! Well, here are some of the sparse historical facts, and now you can know whom to blame for your lack of leisure - The ancient astronomers! Your very own astronomical kin.

Early on, humans started keeping time in one way or another for a variety of reasons. They must have noticed the regularity of the rising and setting of the sun and needed to have accurate measurements of such events. Notches which were carved on the discovered artifacts of early humans have been interpreted as being tally marks or counters, as a means of keeping track of the seasons and times of the year, and, importantly, as records of the lunar cycle. Early humans were keeping records early on. A marked bone which was probably used as a record of months and lunar phases and which was from approximately 9000 to 8001 BC or as late as 6500 BC was found in Ishango, which is now Zaire. Primitive hunter-gatherers had already detected patterns in the apparent motions of the stars and possibly even in the real motions of the planets through the night sky. These same traditions appeared later in Egypt and in Central America and are thought to have been associated with specific apparent motions of Sirius and Venus.

Of first importance to early people, and upon which all people could agree, with any degree of accuracy, was the measurement of time using fairly large amounts of time. Large amounts of time are easily measured because the &ldquoclockwork&rdquo is supplied by the universe, itself, as seen in the daily and annual motion of Earth and the Moon. Even so, the more careful measurements of time were not easy to come by. One revolution of Earth constitutes a day and a &ldquomoon&rdquo is from one new moon to the next but yearly measurements were not very simple to measure. In addition, a day is not very easy to measure accurately. It took some time before humans learned to measure the day from one noon (when the Sun is at its highest point in the sky) to the next.

A good length for the year was first established by the ancient Egyptians, probably because the Nile floods annually about the same time. This flooding generally occurs when Sirius rises at approximately the same time as the sun (helical rising). A year is approximately 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds, approximately one quarter of a day longer than 365 days. Between 5000 to 4001 BC, the Egyptian calendar appeared, being the first known calendar to be based on 365 days (indicating 12 months of 30 days and 5 days of festival, beginning with the day that Sirius, the Dog Star, rises in line with the Sun in the morning, which coincides with the annual flood of the Nile). From astronomical evidence only, it was possibly instituted as early as 4241 BC or perhaps about 1500 years later. Because the Egyptian calendar is known to have accurately matched the seasons with dates in 139 AD and gradually went into and out of alignment with the seasons with a period of about 1455 years, astronomers have deduced that the year of 365 days began about 4228 BC or 2773 BC.

Hellenic astronomers added the missing 1/4 day to the Egyptian calendar by adding an extra (leap) day every four years, but most people ignored it. The calendar with a leap day was finally adopted by the Romans under Gaius Julius Caesar in 4 BC. Since then, the calendar has had one major modification, when Pope Gregory, in 1582, on the advice of astronomers, dropped the leap day in years that end in two zeros.

Later, sometime between 2600 and 2501 BC, the Chinese used a vertical pole to project the shadow of the sun for the purpose of estimating time. Sometime, between 2200 and 2101 BC, the Sumerians began to use a 360-day year, 12-month solar calendar along with a 354-day lunar calendar. This calendar included an extra month every eight years in order to keep it in step with the seasons. From 1500 to 1451 BC, the gnomon, which is the L-shaped indicator on a sundial, was regularly used by the Egyptians. Thutmose III erected the &ldquoNeedle of Cleopatra&rdquo in Heliopolis. Its shadow was used to calculate the time, the seasons, and the solstices.

The earliest history of humanity has no known dates. After writing began to be used, people started dating events, but these were usually in relation to other events that we can no longer date. The long histories of the Egyptian and the Chinese dynasties, however, provided fairly good year dates for those cultures back to 3000 BC.

The Mayans recorded specific day dates that go back in time tens of thousands of years. Since many of the events dated in this system occurred before the most optimistic early date for humans in North America, it is assumed that these very early dates are for mythical events that were invented much later. Very early Chinese dates also are thought to have been late inventions.

A strong candidate for the first real date in history, that is, the first specific day on which an event can be pinpointed as having occurred, is May 28, 585 BC. The event was a battle between the Medes and the Lydians that was suddenly called off when an eclipse of the Sun frightened both armies. This eclipse, supposed to have been forecast correctly by Thales (although at best he would have had the year right, not the date), could only have been the one observable in the Middle East on May 28, 585. No other solar eclipse would have been visible in that region for many years on either side of 585.

A similar candidate for the first date, September 6, 775 BC, comes from Chinese astronomical records. It is the earliest date that records an astronomical event that we can say occurred at a particular time. However, it is not connected with any other event such as the war of the Medes and Lydians.

Dates were not rigorously kept during the Greek and Hellenistic period, although Chinese dates at this time were more certain. To make matters complicated for us, most dates were given in &ldquoOlympiads&rdquo which could only be localized to within a four-year period. Approximate dates for the lives of many of the well-known scientists and philosophers in that era have been worked out by historians from bits and pieces of evidence. For instance, if you read in some sources that Thales was born in 624 BC and died in 546 BC you can assume that such dates are indefinite as to source. Instead, historians have been clever and, when only one date in a person&rsquos life is known, the historians assumed that the person must have been around 40 when the event occurred. For instance, historians know the year that Thales is said to have predicted an eclipse, which astronomical calculations put at 585 BC. Therefore, it is assumed that Thales may have been born around 623 BC. Because there is a tradition that Thales lived to be about 70, historians think he may have died in 546 BC. Therefore, because of the uncertainty of the dates during this period, consider all dates as occurring within the decade surrounding that date, or even, possibly, in an adjacent decade. Sometimes it had to be assumed that events listed only in the first decade of a century should be considered as having occurred at some date during that century. Often, the century is uncertain, as well. An early astronomer, Kiddinu, who was born in Babylon between 340 and 331 BC, devised an early version of the precession of the equinoxes which was somewhat inaccurate. The precession of the equinoxes refers to the apparent change over a period of 26,700 years in the position of the fixed stars which is caused by Earth&rsquos wobbling in its orbit. Later, from 160 to 141 BC, Hipparchus of Nicea (in Turkey), who was born around 190 BC, listed the fixed stars and more accurately discovered the precession of the equinoxes.

Andronikos of Kyrrhestes, from 50 to 41 BC, built in Athens the Tower of Winds, which was a water clock combined with solar clocks positioned in the eight principal directions. It is the most accurate device that the Greeks had devised by then for keeping time. In 132 Zhang Heng in China combines a water clock with an armillary to produce a device, somewhat like the modern planetarium, to keep track of where stars are expected to be in the sky.

Often misguided writers will believe that there was some coordination between the early peoples and that they corresponded with each other to produce these devices. Wrong! While at rare instances there might have been some correspondence between the members of various civilizations (particularly as one civilization conquered another more scientifically or technically advanced civilization), most of this invention was begun with the single fact of the night sky to lead them. All of these astronomers were able to devise means of keeping time, first generally, but becoming more and more specific as their methods improved, simply because of the improvement of astronomical techniques.

Let us hear a cheer for the ancient astronomers! Where would we have been without them? Next time you visit Peach Mountain (or any dark site) observe a moment of silence, contemplating their brilliance in achievement over the millennia. Your excellent observing powers of today began with their humble first efforts.


Mezopotamija

In the 1920s Sir Leonard Woolley excavated at the site of Ur in southern Iraq and discovered a cemetery of unlooted graves from around 2,600 BC this enigmatic object was found in one of them.

Its sides consist of two rectangular panels (height 20.3cm), decorated with scenes made from a mosaic of white shell, red limestone and blue lapis-lazuli (imported from Afghanistan) set in bitumen.

The 'War' side shows chariots charging over fallen enemies, spearmen in helmets and cloaks seizing prisoners, and prisoners escorted before the general. The chariots have solid wheels, and are drawn by donkeys whose reins go through nose-rings (spokes and bits were later inventions).

A banquet is celebrated on the 'Peace' side a musician is shown playing the lyre, and attendants bring booty, donkeys, bulls, sheep, goats and fish.


THINGS TO DO IN PENSACOLA FLORIDA

The National Museum of Naval Aviation is a great place to visit on the base, and is free to the public. The museum is home to hundreds of historic and modern aircraft.

National Museum of Naval Aviation

Other interesting places to visit include Fort Barrancas i Fort Pickens where poor old Geronimo was held as a prisoner many years ago.

In addition to the military presence, Pensacola Florida has many annual art and music festivals, historic tours and ancient restored neighborhoods from the earliest days of its settlement.

Pensacola New World Inn

The Fiesta of Five Flags is held the first two weeks of June, and is a ten day event.  Each year the celebrations in a bit different.

The Pensacola Seafood Festivalਊnd the Pensacola Crawfish Festivalਊre held each year at Seville Square in the heart of downtown.

The Great Gulfcoast Arts Festival is also held each year in November and attracts more than 200 artists.

Pensacola and St. Augustine continually compete for the title of most ancient city in America. Pensacola is actually a tad older, but St. Augustine touts itself as being the oldest "continuously occupied" city in America.


The Story Of Elongated Skulls And The Denied History Of Ancient People: An Interview With Mark Laplume

Mark Laplume is an artist and independent researcher who has been engaged in making reconstruction drawings of ancient people with elongated skulls. I have already had the pleasure of showcasing his remarkable work in a gallery on fetuses and children with elongated heads , and in a post on the visualization of ancient populations . Mark’s reconstructions were also illustrated in an article on suppressed evidence challenging the Artificial Cranial Deformation paradigm as the only way of explaining elongated skulls . Mark now shares some of his insights into the mystery of elongated skulls with the readers of Ancient Origins.

IG: Mark, how did you become interested in elongated skulls and why did you decide to start reconstructing the appearance of these people?

In 2006, when I first downloaded Google Earth, I looked around at places I knew and then made a bee line to the south end of Lake Titicaca. I was blown away by what I saw. The ruins of something vast covered every hilltop for miles in all directions. Ja znao something incredible had gone on there, but put it out of my mind after finding no interest by anyone I tried to share it with.

Evidence of ancient civilization in Bolivia. Credit: Google Maps

About six years later, I saw one of Brien Foerster’s posts showing elongated skulls . I was lucky enough to reach him and talk a little bit about what I was looking at.

Looking at the images of the skulls made me curious as to who these people were and how they looked. There were almost no interpretations of their appearance and almost nothing about their history. My momentary sense of inclusion made me wonder what I could do to help him to advance our understanding of these people. Although I had not picked up a pencil in 14 years, I felt sure I could draw them to recreate their faces, to see what they looked like. I'd quit art school, but continued to pursue art in various ways for 18 years, culminating in working on large sculptural projects in the mid-nineties, at which point I stopped drawing and making art.

Brien Foerster with an elongated skull. Image from his Facebook page

Meanwhile, back to the skulls, I started doing online and archival research, collecting the images of elongated skulls, and drawing. To date, I have done over 5,000 drawings and collected more than 18,000 photos of skulls, mummies and related artifacts. While working with this incredible data and making drawings, the lack of understanding, history and myth of what these people were and how they looked did not lend a sense of legitimacy to the attempt. There were so many unanswered questions I wondered if perhaps this is why so few people could involve themselves with this kind of project. It’s like a wall so big, you don’t notice it or don’t want to admit it is there.

Mark Laplume’s artistic interpretations of elongated skulls from Bolivia (top) and Paracas, Peru

When I began this study in 2011, the count of skulls was known by very few people, who were actually aware of this. They estimated that there were a few hundreds of skulls. But through web searches, I’ve found literally thousands of skulls! There are also about one thousand skulls in Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine and Chile which are not yet accessible to the public. Even more skulls remain unknown, as they have not been photographed (or at least are not publicly accessible) and therefore, not available for public viewing in Chile and Peru.

Elongated skulls in a museum in Romania

IG: Academic researchers are generally dismissive of elongated skulls. They see them as nothing but artificially deformed human skulls - a result of deliberate head-binding to achieve a flattened shape. In addition to this 'artificial head-modification' thesis, they sometimes also cite a medical problem called Hydrocephaly. Why, do you think, academics maintain this view? What is their evidence?

Elongated skulls are never spoken about without terms of head-binding. It’s the hole in the bucket refrain from which there is no escape. But now there are also those, and I mean not only researchers but obviously people, who’ve woken up to the layers of lies we’ve been fed since the get-go. Many who look at the evidence of anomalies in the skulls, are not satisfied with believing in the cranial modification dogma. People like Brien Foerster , Lloyd Pye , Graham Hancock , not to forget Michael Cremo , examine and record evidence, rather than the stories made by earlier researchers, textbooks, and other gate keepers of conventional perspectives. The point is to keep asking questions.

The verbal portrayal of "binding" is a collective projection. The reality is that 99% of those who speak about it have never examined an elongated skull first-hand. I don't know how it's so prevalent except that it's repeated all the time. The usual approach to elongated skulls is dominated by concepts, but the skulls’ shapes are not linguistic, they are morphologic. My work has been an attempt at making a soft rebuttal by making public my process of looking-and-drawing, which involves seeing.

I don’t rely on classical authorities. In my work, the skulls are doing the talking. Talking is a projection, while seeing is receiving. And no one can answer questions which you alone can actually experience at the level of seeing. This is why my approach to elongated skulls is not conditioned by the dogma “elongated = deformed”.

Left: Mark Laplume’s interpretation of ‘Detmold Child’. Right: Detmold Child on display (public domain)

IG: Are there any significant skulls that leave no doubt the 'artificial deformation' paradigm is wrong? How are these skulls different? Are there differences among elongated skulls themselves? Is it possible to group them according to shape and other features?

To your first question - take a look at these skulls exhibited at the Ica Museum in Peru.

Elongated skulls from the Ica Museum in Peru

There are problems with the official story, which dates back to Hippocrates, defining Huns as having been bound. It claims that all skulls are merely artificially modified skulls of the modern looking humans. The fact is, many had larger eyes as well as a 25% larger brain case than modern humans. Also, they had higher ears, up to ½ an inch higher than normal.

Paracas skulls (left) and modern human skulls (right)

Cranial sutures are different. There are mysterious holes at the back of the skull. An extra plate above the Occipital, known as the “Inca bone”.

The Paracas skulls have variations in the occipital bone compared to modern-day human skulls. Images by Lainie Liberti

There is a problem with infants too, which have been found in Peru and the Andes with a tooth-set of a three year old modern human child. Most parents will know that molar teeth in an infant sized toddler is unheard of.

Infant skull from Cusco, Peru, and Infant/Child skull from Tiwanaku, Bolivia

In South America, there are different categories or types. It does seem so, but I don’t get into (Spanish) terminology. For me, it’s just another way to separate from seeing the skull’s individual characteristics. I tend to say that “they had range”, like the unexplained red head that appears randomly in a family line. Similarly, the Elongated, the Huns. were wild in this way. They had a greater range, it seems, of morphological expression.

Image illustrating one of the "types" of elongated skulls

In terms of the connections between the Americas and Eurasia, elongated skulls from these areas are so similar that sometimes the only way to distinguish them from one another is by the background, or patina, on the skulls.

IG: Are you relying on any anthropological or forensic methods of facial reconstruction? Or more generally – how do you visualize the appearance of these people?

Organs come together to form the overall “body” of a head. Drawing the same skull from different directions tends to smooth out mistakes. The form arises in unison with the elements of bone, muscle and skin. Mainly, bones define much of a person’s face, so accuracy, we would hope, is inevitable.

IG: How do you fund your research? What are your future plans?

There’s a definite need for funding. When and if funding becomes available, it will greatly facilitate research and presentation of elongated skulls and it would increase our understanding of the historical significance of these people.

This has been somewhat of a slow awakening, but I think my drawings have gotten better. They were not good at all at first, although they were nešto at a time when we had almost nothing at all to look at.

My drawing work continues. Now I hope to gain research access to the archives of museums in Boston, Philadelphia and Chicago. To look at skulls from Peru firsthand and, hopefully, photograph their collections of Peruvian skulls. I am also working to produce a book of illustrations, presenting images of skulls and reconstruction drawings. In order to get a more definite understanding, studies done in Eastern Europe as well as the Andean region will be required.

IG: Thank you for sharing your story and your work. We look forward to seeing more of them on RootRaceResearch and hope to continue our conversation soon.

Mark Laplume’s reconstructions can be seen on his facebook page “Root Race Research” . The albums offer an excellent overview of the elongated skulls from various regions of the globe. Mark can also be reached via his personal Facebook Page .


Gledaj video: PLES S KONJIMA - DON KIHOT - HRT (Lipanj 2022).


Komentari:

  1. Vitilar

    In my opinion, someone has a letter alexia :)

  2. Dizragore

    Puno hvala na pomoći u ovom pitanju, sada ne toleriram takve pogreške.

  3. Doramar

    Vratimo se na temu

  4. Nathan

    I na onome što ćemo prestati?

  5. Golar

    ZDRAV ŽIVOT!

  6. Zugor

    mmm)) so cool))



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