Članci

Mozaik Djevice i djeteta, Aja Sofija

Mozaik Djevice i djeteta, Aja Sofija



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Mozaik Djevice i djeteta, Aja Sofija - Povijest

Aja Sofija ’s Povijest i ikone.

Aja Sofija ’s Povijest i ikone.

Svjetski poznati muzej Aja Sofija u Istanbulu – koji je prvobitno osnovan kao katedrala – ponovo je pretvoren u džamiju. Predsjednik Turske#8217s Recep Tayyip Erdogan objavio je odluku nakon što je sud poništio status muzeja#8217.

Sagrađena prije 1.500 godina kao pravoslavna kršćanska katedrala, Aja Sofija pretvorena je u džamiju nakon osmanskog osvajanja 1453. godine.

Aja Sofija, glavna atrakcija za turiste, ima dugu i kompliciranu povijest. Arhitektonsko čudo sagradili su Bizantinci kao crkvu u 6. stoljeću, a zatim pretvoreno u džamiju nakon osmanskog osvajanja Carigrada 1453. godine.

Godine 1934. turski vođa Mustafa Kemal Ataturk iz kabineta donio je odluku da se pretvori u muzej. Općenito se smatra simbolom mirnog vjerskog suživota. To je mjesto svjetske baštine UNESCO -a.

Promjena koja dolazi u Aja Sofiju, traje od 6. stoljeća, nadživjevši Bizantsko Carstvo i Osmansko doba. Sada će opet biti džamija. No turski dužnosnici kažu da se kršćanski amblemi, uključujući mozaike Djevice Marije koji ukrašavaju njezinu zlatnu kupolu, neće ukloniti.

Promjene u Aja Sofiji duboko su simbolične. Kemal Ataturk, osnivač moderne Turske, odlučio je da to bude muzej. No, mnogi u međunarodnoj zajednici tvrde da spomenik pripada čovječanstvu, a ne Turskoj, i trebao je ostati nepromijenjen. Kažu da je to bio most između dvije vjere i simbol suživota. Ubrzo nakon objave, prvi ezan je recitiran u Aja Sofiji i emitiran je na svim glavnim vijestima Turske#8217.

Bob Atchison uložio je mnogo studija u ikone u Aja Sofiji i dao pozadinu povijesti. Kad danas uđete u muzej, turisti prolaze kroz ogromnu nadsvođenu predsoblje. Preko vrata je veliki djevičanski mozaik s Konstantinom i Justinijanom s obje strane. U njenom krilu sjedi Kristovo dijete. Ovaj mozaik ovdje stoji više od tisuću godina. Ne znamo kada je bio skriven pod krečnjakom i žbukom, ali većina glavnih mozaika Aja Sofije ostala je izložena stotinama godina nakon osvajanja Carigrada od strane Osmanlija.

Dok ulazite u glavni dio muzeja, Djevica i Dijete u apsidi stoje neposredno ispred vas. U prostranstvu prostora lađe lik je malen. Ovdje je ostao stotinama godina nakon što je crkva pretvorena u džamiju. Milioni muslimana molili su se ispod nje, s anđelima s obje strane u luku bema.

Vraćajući se ikonama Bogorodice u Aja Sofiji, još uvijek postoje dva njihova lijepa primjera u gornjoj južnoj galeriji. Ovaj je prostor bio povezan s Velikom palačom drvenim nasipom i stubištem. Imala je velike prozore pa su ljudi mogli vidjeti članove carske obitelji i sudski proces od palače do crkve iznad njih. Ovaj povišeni nasip bio je poznat i impresivan i#8211 dupliciran je na drugim kraljevskim dvorima u to vrijeme. Prije mnogo godina još uvijek ste mogli vidjeti bizantske natpise na drugom zidu Aja Sofije gdje je nasip bio spojen sa zidom. Sada se unutarnja vrata otvaraju prema van.

Južna galerija često se naziva Imperijalna galerija, ali zaista nije ’t. Ljudi ovdje vide slike carskih vladara Bizanta i donose zaključak da je to kraljevski prostor. Velika crkva Aja Sofija bila je patrijarhalna, nije bila carska ustanova. Car nije mogao ući u Aju Sofiju bez poziva patrijarha, koji bi pozdravio cara i njegovu obitelj na bilo kojem ulazu koji su koristili.

U gornjoj južnoj galeriji nalaze se tri preživjela mozaika, od kojih dva imaju carske figure. Oni prikazuju članove carske obitelji koji doniraju novac i druge potpore crkvi i svećenstvu Aja Sofije. Taj je prostor zapravo bio službenički prostor i tamo su se održavala mnoga crkvena vijeća.

Na jednoj od mozaičnih ploča prikazani su Ivan, Eirene i njihov sin Alexios Comnenos s Bogorodicom Bogorodicom između njih. Ovaj mozaik je vrlo poznat i jedan je od vrhunaca koje svaki turist koji se upusti u galerije na drugom katu vidi i divi se. Lik Djevice s djetetom čini se modernim gledateljima ukočen i hijeratski. Predstavlja specifičan tip ikone Bogorodice, onu koja se smatrala zaštitnicom carske obitelji i dvora. Druga ikona Bogorodice u južnoj galeriji nalazi se lijevo od Krista u velikoj Deidi. Stilno se dramatično razlikuje od onog drugog. Deesis Virgin iznimno je kvalitetne izrade i ima gotovo pretjeranu mekoću. Sastoji se od nevjerojatno malih kockica stakla i kamena i stvorena je kako bi iskoristila jedinstvenu rasvjetu svog položaja pored velikih prozora galerije.

U Aja Sofiji bilo je mnogo prijenosnih slika Bogorodice. One u prizemlju hodočasnici su slavili u crkvu. Mnoga su velika umjetnička djela koja su inspirirala umjetnike diljem Europe i Azije. Glavni fokus posjetitelja crkve bile bi slike između stupova velikog mramornog ikonostasa crkve koji su bili optočeni srebrom, caklinom, biserima i emajlima koji su bili skinuti s ukrasa i uništeni nakon pretvaranja crkve u džamija.

Molitva s ikonama

Prije svega, pronađite ikonu. Ako je moguće, zapalite svijeću ili zapalite tamjan u blizini. To može dodatno poboljšati atmosferu molitve, angažirajući sva osjetila. Zatim jednostavno pogledajte ikonu.

Mnogi duhovni pisci objašnjavaju da je molitva s ikonama prijemljivo iskustvo u kojem gledamo u nebo i dopuštamo Bogu da dotakne naše srce. Važno je jednostavno pogledati ikonu i primijetiti različite detalje i boje. Sve na ikoni je simbolično i ukazuje na neku duhovnu istinu o Bogu. Ako je predmet ikone svetac, obično postoje različiti simboli koji stvaraju "duhovni portret" sveca, odražavajući atribute ili događaje koji su pridonijeli svetosti osobe.

Zlatna podloga podsjeća na prisutnost Boga i njegovo nestvoreno svjetlo. To je poziv da uđete u njegovu prisutnost i budete odvedeni u duhovno područje ljepote.

Slušanje je važan dio molitve s ikonama jer nam omogućuje da čujemo Božju riječ i ono što nam želi govoriti. To pojačava stvarnost da je molitva u biti razgovor u kojem produbljujemo svoju ljubav prema Bogu.

Kad gledate ikonu, šutite i mirno i prepoznajte gdje vam je oko privučeno. Kakav učinak boja ima na vas? Kakve osjećaje izaziva ikona?

Uočite oči pojedinca na ikoni. Često nas oči gledaju natrag. Neka oči Isusa, Marije ili jednog od svetaca prodru u vašu dušu. Što vam pokušavaju reći?

Uzmite ikonu koliko god vremena trebate s ikonom. U početku pokušajte provesti 10 ili 15 minuta s ikonom. Ova vrsta molitve zahtijeva kontemplativno srce, koje usporava, odmara se od brzog društva u kojem živimo.

Nakon što je prošlo dovoljno vremena, zahvalite Bogu na prilici da budete s njim i spremite ikonu na prikladno mjesto. Molitva s ikonama može biti lijepo iskustvo koje se može ponavljati svaki dan.


Izbija kontroverza kada Turska pretvara Aja Sofiju u svjetsku baštinu u džamiju

Svjetski poznata Aja Sofija u Istanbulu ponovno će postati džamija. Mjesto od velikog vjerskog značaja i za kršćane i za muslimane, u ovom ili onom obliku stoji od 6. stoljeća. Godine 1934. postao je muzej i vrhunska je atrakcija za turiste. Sada je predsjednik Recep Tayyip Erdogan najavio kontroverznu odluku o promjeni statusa.

Kako je izvijestio BBC News, Državno vijeće Turske zaključilo je da "nije legalno" da Hagia Sophia nastavi u svom sadašnjem obliku. Oni navode "akt o nagodbi" koji očito cementira njegovu upotrebu kao džamije. Oni koji su ga “definirali kao muzej nisu se pridržavali zakona”. Vlada tvrdi da ostvaruje suvereno pravo.

Pogled iz zraka na Aja Sofiju u Istanbulu, Turska

Status muzeja za bizantsku strukturu proglasio je Kemal Atatürk, prvi predsjednik Republike Turske. Sagradio ga je car Konstancije 360. godine kao baziliku za grčke pravoslavne kršćane, a kroz stoljeća je prošao kroz preokrete, pa čak i razaranja. Aja Sofija koja se danas vidi treća je verzija koju je nadzirao Justinijan I. (537. godine). Kad je Mehmed Osvajač 1453. godine zauzeo Konstantinopolj za Osmanlije, Aja Sofija je išla od katedrale do džamije.

Aja Sofija u Istanbulu, Turska

Presuda donesena u petak – izazvala je negodovanje, a mnogi je vide kao pokušaj učvršćivanja centralizirane vlasti. Prije 2 godine, predsjednik je šutke izgovarao uvodne stihove Kur'ana unutar njegovih zidina. Pišući za BBC, Orla Guerin vjeruje da "sada poduzima još jedan korak kako bi demontirao Ataturkovo sekularno naslijeđe i premjestio Tursku prema njegovoj viziji". Ona dodaje da se "dobro igra s njegovom bazom – vjerskim konzervativcima – i s turskim nacionalistima".

Aja Sofija (Aya Sofya) u zatvorenom prostoru snimljena objektivom riblje oko.

Osim što je trajan podsjetnik na tursku povijest, ova stranica stvara ravnotežu za građane Istanbula. Ležeći na Bosporskom tjesnacu, grad se nalazi između Europe i Azije. Približno 15 milijuna ljudi dijeli granicu između 2 kontinenta. History.com bilježi: "Slično poput Eiffelovog tornja u Parizu ili Partenona u Ateni, Aja Sofija je dugotrajni simbol kozmopolitskog grada."

Mozaik apside Bogorodice i djeteta u Aja Sofiji

Mjesto se poziva na Justinijanovu namjeru da katedrala bude raznolika u izgradnji, odražavajući ogromno Bizantsko Carstvo. „Mramor koji se koristio za pod i strop proizvodio se u Anadoliji (današnja istočna Turska) i Siriji, dok su ostale cigle (korištene u zidovima i dijelovima poda) potjecale čak iz sjeverne Afrike. Unutrašnjost Aja Sofije obložena je ogromnim mramornim pločama za koje se kaže da su dizajnirane da oponašaju pokretnu vodu. ” Stupovi su dijelom dolazili iz Efeza i Artemidinog hrama.

Mozaik carice Zoe u Aja Sofiji. Fotografija Myrabella

Aja Sofija je mjesto svjetske baštine, a Unesco je među organizacijama koje se protive presudi. Irish Times piše da je također "izazvao duboko zgražanje među pravoslavnim kršćanima, a Svjetsko vijeće crkava sa sjedištem u Ženevi, čiji su članovi i protestantska i pravoslavna crkva, progovorilo je o njegovoj" tuzi i užasu "".

Kritike dolaze s najviših razina. Tijekom javnog obraćanja Papa je dao „vrlo kratku, improviziranu opasku“, rekavši: „Mislim na Aju Sofiju i duboko me boli“.

Oni koji se boje promjene statusa posijat će podjelu, nemaju se čega bojati, barem prema Erdoganu. Citiran od strane BBC-a, kaže da će "vrata Aja Sofije biti širom otvorena za domaće i strance, muslimane i nemuslimane". Orla Guerin piše: "Turski dužnosnici kažu da kršćanski amblemi, uključujući mozaike Djevice Marije koji krase njezinu zlatnu kupolu, neće biti uklonjeni."

Aja Sofija bit će otvorena kao džamija za molitvu od 24. srpnja. Kultna zgrada svjedočila je nekim dramatičnim događajima u posljednjih 1500 godina. Nema sumnje da će godinama biti domaćin više.

Palača Steve je pisac i komičar iz Velike Britanije. Suradnik je i The Vintage News i The Hollywood News te je stvorio sadržaj za mnoge druge web stranice. Njegovu kratku prozu objavio je Obverse Books.


OPIS MOZAIKA - HAGIJSKA SOFIJA

Djevica koja zauzima središte polukupole apside predstavljena je ustoličena s Djetetom koje joj sjedi u krilu. Desnu ruku naslanja na djetetovo desno rame, a lijevu, koja drži rupčić, na lijevo koljeno djeteta. Slika je potpuna, osim područja gubitka (otprilike o.80 m. Visoko i 0,70 širine) na Bogorodici s lijeve strane koja odgovara njezinoj lijevoj podlaktici i laktu, Djetetovoj lijevoj ruci i dijelu gornjeg jastuka. postavljen na prijestolje. Nadalje, postoji pukotina uzrokovana strukturnom pukotinom u ljusci polukupole koja se spušta po sredini figure do vrha središnjeg prozora. Jasno je da je mozaik izveden u vrijeme kada je polukupola već pretrpjela deformacije koje danas pokazuje.

S obzirom na proporcije figure, potrebno je imati na umu neka razmatranja. Dolje navedene dimenzije izmjerene su na krivulji i pokazuju da se općenito gledano ljestvica smanjuje kako se ide više prema slici. Ovo smanjenje, iako nije dosljedno (stoga su djevičanska stopala premala čak i po normalnim standardima), nepogrešivo je: djevičanska glava je premala u odnosu na njezinu ukupnu visinu (udio je 1: 8,3), desna ruka znatno je manja od njezine lijeve šake, a i dječja figura, koja počinje s prilično velikim stopalima, gubi ljestvicu prema vrhu. Ova se anomalija ne može objasniti bilo kojim racionalnim pokušajem umjetnika da se suprotstavi optičkim izobličenjima. Budući da je lik Bogorodice postavljen iznad prozora konhe, ne leži uobičajeno, na kvadrantu kruga, već u gornjoj polovici kvadranta, i ako smo povukli zamišljenu liniju od vrha do pri dnu kompozicije ova linija bi bila na 300 u odnosu na horizontalu. Da biste vidjeli mozaik pod pravim kutom od tla, morate stajati na istočnom kraju zgrade, u skladu s istočnim eksedrama. Od sredine lađe gornji dio mozaika je skraćen više od donjeg dijela, tako da udio glave prema tijelu postaje oko 1: 9. Tek ako se stane izravno ispod mozaika (položaj nedostupan srednjovjekovnom štovatelju), proporcije postaju gotovo normalne. Drugim riječima, kreator mozaika postavio je lik kao da je namijenjen donjem prstenu kupole, da se gleda ravno prema gore, kao, na primjer, u kupoli Uzašašća Svete Sofije u Solunu, gdje su likovi Djevica i apostoli ispravno su produženi u odnosu na njihove glave. Imajte na umu da je u apsidi potonje crkve glava ustoličene Djevice, naprotiv, nerazmjerno velika. Ono što se zasigurno dogodilo u našem slučaju je da je mozaik Bogorodice izveden s platforme manje-više u razini s prozorima polukupole apside. Pretpostavimo li da je umjetnik uzeo svoju točku gledišta neposredno ispod krune polukupole ili na vrlo kratku udaljenost zapadnije, što je morao učiniti da bi cijelu kompoziciju mogao vidjeti jednim pogledom, tada se proporcije mozaik je postao prilično normalan i, što je još izraženije, snimljeno s točke ispod luka beme na razini mramorastog vijenca (udio glave prema cijelom tijelu I: 6.6) .6 Za daljnju potvrdu našeg prijedloga, imajte na umu da na slici 12 sjedalo i podnožje stolice djevičanskog prijestolja izgledaju gotovo vodoravno, a stupovi prijestolja okomiti, dok kad se mozaik vidi odozdo (usp. sl. I) čini se da sjedalo propada u sredini, a stupovi da se razdvoje u bazi. Drugim riječima, umjetnik nije razmišljao o izgledu mozaika sa zemlje: kompoziciju je dizajnirao slobodnom rukom i dao joj proporcije koje su izgledale ispravno s njegove odra. Naravno, nije mogao koristiti bilo koji oblik kvadratne skice za prijenos dizajna na zid.

Obris se sastoji od četiri reda crvenih staklenih tesera. Zlatno polje oreola postavljeno je koncentrično, osim obruba oko glave i ramena koji je širok tri reda. Pomiješan sa zlatnim kockama mali je dio srebrnih. Podslika na krevetu za postavljanje je crvena.

Obrve se sastoje od jednog reda crnih staklenih tesera ispod kojih je linija sjene ljubičasto-smeđeg stakla. Gornji kapci su u crnom staklu, donji kapci u ljubičasto-smeđem staklu. Bjeloočnice: osvijetljeni dijelovi su od bijelih kocki vapnenca, zasjenjeni dijelovi stakla od masline. Učenici: obris i središta su od crnog stakla, ostatak od ljubičasto-smeđeg stakla. Namjernu štetu nanijela su oba oka možda radnici Fossatija. Greben nosa sastoji se od dva okomita niza sitnozrnatog bijelog mramora, praćenog s desne (osvijetljene) strane jednim redom krupnozrnatog prokonnezijskog bijelog mramora i dva reda krem ​​mramora s lijeve (zasjenjene) strane jednim red ružičastog mramora, jedan red ljubičasto-smeđeg stakla, dva reda stakla od masline i dva reda stakla žuto-zelene boje. Vrh nosa, poput grebena, je od glatkog bijelog mramora. Nosnice su od crnog stakla, sjena ispod nosa je u ljubičasto-smeđem staklu. Linija razdvajanja usta je u crvenom staklu. Gornja usna, jako svjetlo na donjoj usni i kutovi usta su u vermilijonskom staklu. Sjena ispod usta je u ljubičasto-smeđem staklu.
Tonovi mesa su u sljedećim materijalima: sitnozrnati bijeli mramor, prokonnezijski bijeli mramor, mliječno prljavo bijelo staklo (koristi se uz desni rub lica), krem ​​mramor i tri nijanse ružičastog mramora. Na vrhu brade postoji dodir vermilijastog stakla, a tri linije na lijevom obrazu.
Osjenčani dijelovi lica sastoje se od ljubičasto-smeđeg stakla, stakla masline, svijetlozelenog i žuto-zelenog stakla. Uši nisu ocrtane. Tessere koje se koriste na licu povremeno su male i do 3 mm & sup2. Postoje mala područja gubitka na čelu, ispod desnog oka i na vrhu brade.
Ispod brade nalazi se prilično teška sjena u ljubičasto-smeđem staklu i zelenim naočalama, koje se protežu do zasjenjene (lijeve) strane vrata. Nadalje, postoji linija svijetlozelenog stakla u podnožju vrata.

Donja linija prstiju i stražnje strane šake je u crvenom staklu. Tonovi mesa su od finozrnatog bijelog mramora, prokonnezijskog bijelog mramora, a tri tona ružičastog mramora sjene su u žuto-zelenom staklu. Zglobovi prstiju na kažiprstu i srednjem prstu, kao i nokti na rukama, neprimjetno su označeni sitnozrnim bijelim mramorom. Nokti se ne ocrtavaju kao u lijevoj ruci.

Palac i prsti ocrtani su s desne strane gledatelja sa smeđim staklom koje također stvara tešku sjenu na stražnjoj strani šake. Svjetlija sjena u blizini zgloba, kao i jedna linija s lijeve strane prstena, nalaze se u žuto-zelenom staklu. Tjelesni tonovi isti su kao u desnoj ruci. Nokti su ocrtani crvenim staklom.
Na palcu je presavijen rupčić koji se sastoji od bijelog prokonnezijskog mramora, ocrtanog s lijeve strane gledatelja s dva reda bijelih vapnenačkih tesera. Vapnenac se također koristi za rese s resicama s lijeve strane, ali ne i na desnom kraju rupčića.

Stopala, koja su nesrazmjerno mala (izloženi dio lijevog stopala dugačak je samo 0,20 m), obuvena su, kao i obično, u crvene papuče. U početku su papuče bile iscrtane u dva tona: za zasjenjene dijelove korišteno je crveno staklo, dok su se osvijetljeni dijelovi sastojali od kockica umočenih u crvenu olovnu boju. Boja se u velikoj mjeri raspala, otkrivajući staklene i kamene tesere različitih boja, zlatne, srebrne, zelene, plave itd.

Marama koja prekriva djevičansku glavu izrađena je od bijelog prokonnezijskog mramora s linijom sjene i nizom trostrukih linija nabora u tirkiznom staklu. Marama je ocrtana uz lice jednom linijom crnih staklenih tesera. Djevica je odjevena, kao i obično, u stolu i maforion. Obje su iste boje. Stola je vidljiva ispod vrata, na manšeti desne ruke i od koljena prema dolje. Odjeća se označava pomoću samo četiri nijanse staklenih tesera: tirkizne, kobaltno plave, tamnoplave i crne (ponekad čiste crne, ponekad ljubičaste). Tirkizna je podvrgnuta znatnom propadanju površine zbog čega postaje blijeđa. To je posebno uočljivo na djevičanskom desnom koljenu i, gledajući iz daljine, proizvodi varljiv izgled pretjeranog jakog svjetla. Maforion je ukrašen križnim segmentima, svaki se sastoji od četiri mala zlatna kvadrata. Jedan od ovih ukrasa postavljen je u središte kapuljače, a jedan na svako rame. Rub maforiona gdje pada s lijeve ruke ima dvostruki rub u blijedo tirkiznom staklu s bližim svjetlima označenim bijelim mramorom. Na rub su pričvršćene rese koje se sastoje od dvije ili tri niti vezane u čvor. Rese su prilično shematski nacrtane, od bijelog mramora gdje su nasuprot plavetnilu maforiona i od plavog stakla gdje su od zlata podnožja za noge.

Halo je ocrtano s tri reda crvenih staklenih tesera. Ruke križa, koje su gotovo ravne, izrađene su od bijelog prokonnezijskog mramora. Polje aureole je u zlatu, postavljeno koncentrično. U zlatu nema primjesa srebrnih kockica.

Postoji namjerno oštećenje desnog oka. Daljnja područja gubitka javljaju se iznad desnog uha, na vrhu glave i niz lijevu stranu kose do točke neposredno iznad lijevog uha.

Dijete je prikazano svijetlokoso. Svjetliji pramenovi kose su u žutom staklu i žuto-zelenom staklu, tamniji pramenovi su u prozirnom smeđem staklu (zlatne kocke okrenute bočno) i mat smeđem staklu. Akcente daju povremene zlatne niti. Trostruki pramen pada preko sredine čela. Tonovi mesa lica i vrata izrađeni su od sljedećih materijala. Sitni bijeli mramor koristi se za izbočene ili istaknute dijelove, tj. središte čela, iznad obrva, jedan okomiti niz niz greben nosa i jedan poprečni niz preko vrha mosta, vrh nosa, vrh brade i nekoliko linija ispod očiju. Siva vena prokonnezijskog mramora daje svijetle sjene na grebenu nosa (okomito, s obje strane bijele crte), između obrva, s desne strane čela (unutar zelene sjene), ispod očiju, i u malom zavoju lijevo od usta. Koriste se tri tona ružičastog mramora, najblijedi uglavnom na čelu, dva intenzivnija tona u obrazima i bradi. Krem mramor ocrtava nos i nosnice. Postoje tri tona zelenog stakla: svijetlo žuto-zeleno, žuto-zeleno (ispod očiju, s desne strane vrata i s desne strane čela) i blijedozeleno (obris desne čeljusti). Maslinovo staklo koristi se u dva tona (jedan žućkast) za ocrtavanje cijele lijeve strane glave i zajedno s ljubičasto-smeđim staklom u sjeni oko očiju i ispod usta. Ljubičasto-smeđe staklo ocrtava nos i oči.
Obrve, kapci, nosnice i kutovi usta nalaze se u blago ljubičastom staklu. Odvajanje usta je u tamnocrvenom staklu. Vermilion staklo koristi se na usnama, male mrlje na obrazima, mrlje na donjem dijelu brade, a druge na desnom uhu. Bjelanjke očiju su u bijelom vapnencu.

Desna ruka, koja je jedino sačuvana, prilično je nespretno izvučena. Drže se u blagoslovu, sa prstenjakom savijenim unatrag i spojenim s palcem. Razmaci između vrhova prstiju ostavljeni su u nepostavljenom gipsu. Donja strana prstiju i šaka ocrtana je tamnocrvenim staklom. Tjelesni tonovi izrađeni su pomoću bijelog mramora, sivog prokonnezijskog mramora i tri nijanse ružičastog mramora. Sjene su izražene u žuto-zelenom i blijedozelenom staklu.

Svitak, koji je držan u djetetovoj lijevoj ruci, sastoji se od okomite trake, široke dva do tri reda kockica, od mat bijelog vapnenca okruženog s dva reda prokonnezijskog bijelog mramora. Linija sjene s desne strane gledatelja nalazi se u dva do tri reda blijedo tirkiznog stakla, koje je također činilo kružni otvor na vrhu svitka.

Desno stopalo, prekriveno osim prstiju i donjeg dijela nagiba, prikazano je u frontalnom skraćivanju. Lijevo stopalo je u profilu (duljina 0,34 m.). Stopala su obuvena u sandale, čiji se potplat sastoji od dvostrukog niza zlatnih kockica, a tange od jednog reda zlatne, obrubljene prozirnim smeđim staklom. Tjelesni tonovi sadrže sitnozrnati bijeli mramor, prokonnezijski bijeli mramor i tri tona ružičastog mramora. Linija sjene uz potplat lijeve noge je u svijetlo žuto-zelenom i žuto-zelenom staklu. Desno stopalo ima zelenu liniju sjene koja odvaja prste od nagiba.

Kao i u slučaju Djevice, nema razlike u boji između tunike, od koje su vidljivi desni rukav i dijela koji prekriva dojku, te himation koji obavija ostatak tijela. Osnovna boja je zlatna. Istaknuti ili prednji dijelovi su u srebrnoj boji, sjene u mat smeđem staklu. Tamnije linije nabora nalaze se u prozirnom staklu (zlatne kocke postavljene sa strane), koje je uglavnom smeđe, ponekad zelenkasto.

Prijestolje na kojem sjedi Djevica vidi se s desne strane i malo odozgo. Zbog pogrešne perspektive, njegova konstrukcija nije odmah očita. Horizontalno sjedalo predviđeno je da bude oslonjeno na dva para kvadratnih stupova, a svaki par međusobno je pričvršćen poprečnom šipkom. Prednji stup s lijeve strane gledatelja ima bazu, ali to nije slučaj sa stražnjim stupom s desne strane. Desni i lijevi dio prijestolja imaju različite proporcije (dakle, debljina sjedala je 0,2I do 0,245 m s lijeve strane i 0,32 s desne strane), a kamenje od kabohona koje ukrašava odgovarajuće dijelove ne poravnava se. Postoje neke daljnje nedosljednosti koje će biti opisane u nastavku.
Odstupajući dijelovi prijestolja izrađeni su od grubog granita koji je izvorno bio smeđe boje, ali je sada problijedio u sivu neprikladnu hladovinu. Granitne tesere različitih su veličina do 2 cm duge i neuredno su postavljene u vodoravne redove, osim u poprečnoj traci s desne strane gledatelja, gdje su postavljene na segment kruga. Velike i male tesere korištene su neselektivno.
Vodoravno sjedalo prijestolja ocrtano je s lijeve strane gledatelja istim sivim granitom, s tim što je oko dvije trećine gornjeg obrisa u tri reda miješanog smeđeg stakla, prozirnog i prozirnog. S desne strane gledatelja, prednji i stražnji obrisi vrha sjedala izrađeni su od prozirnog smeđeg stakla, dok su bočna strana sjedala i donji prednji rub obrubljeni granitom.
Prednji dio sjedala ukrašen je kamenjem od kabošona, naizmjenično pravokutnim i ovalnim. Između svakog kamena nalaze se tri bisera postavljena u okomitom nizu. Kamenje, koje je naizmjenično izrađeno od zelenih i crvenih staklenih tesera, ima srebrne nosače obrubljene smeđim staklom. Biseri su od prokonnezijskog mramora i imaju sjene smeđeg stakla.
Lijevo prednje mjesto prijestolja ocrtano je na gledateljima lijevo sivim granitom, osim donjih 16 cm obrisa koji je u smeđem staklu. Ukras stupa sastoji se od dva ovalna i dva pravokutna kamena i deset bisera. Ovalno kamenje crveno, pravokutno zeleno. Nosači su još jednom srebrni, ali su ocrtani granitnim kockama. Četiri gornja bisera imaju smeđe staklene sjene, četiri srednja biserna sjenila od sivog granita, a dva donja bisera plava staklena sjenila. Od dva donja bisera, onaj s desne strane je nerazmjerno velik i njegova plava sjena urezuje okomiti obris stupa. Podnožje stupa ocrtano je tamnoplavim staklom.
Prednji stup desno od gledatelja ukrašen je crvenim ovalnim kamenom i parom zelenog pravokutnog kamenja, kao i biserima. Kao što smo rekli, ovo kamenje se ne slaže s onima na lijevom stupu iz razloga što je sjedište prijestolja znatno šire i dolazi niže s desne strane nego s lijeve strane.

Na jastuk prijestolja postavljena su dva jastuka. Iako je Djevica namijenjena odmaranju na njima, jastuci ostavljaju dojam da su joj položeni iza leđa. Gornji jastuk ima osvijetljene dijelove od bijelog prokonnezijskog mramora. Svijetle sjene su u sivom prokonnezijskom mramoru, srednje sjene u blijedo tirkiznom staklu i teške sjene u tirkiznom staklu. Gornji jastuk ukrašen je listovima bršljana u crvenim staklenim teserama. Veći dio ovog jastuka s desne strane gledatelja je uništen. Donji jastuk ima jaka svjetla u žutom staklu pomiješanom sa žuto-zelenim staklom. Glavno tijelo jastuka je u lisnatozelenom staklu, dok su srednje sjene u tirkiznom staklu, djelomično raspadnute, a teške sjene u tamnoplavom staklu.

Podnožje za noge prikazano je u obrnutoj perspektivi i postavljeno je desno od sredine u odnosu na prijestolje. Prednji dio podnožja za noge dug je 2,34 m pri dnu, visina bočne strane povećava se s 0,33 m sprijeda na 0,365 m straga. Prednja strana, poput vrha podnožja za stopala, zlatna je, dok je bočna strana zasjenjena mat smeđim staklom s posipom zlatnih kockica. Obris je izrađen u tamnoplavom staklu, a gornji dio prednje strane najteži je (pet redova širok). Donji vodoravni i dva okomita obrisa prednje strane široki su četiri reda, bočni obrisi široki su tri reda. Stražnja strana podnožja za stopala nema plavi obris.
Prednja i bočna strana podnožja za noge ukrašena su kamenjem i biserima od kabošona. Na prednjoj strani nalazi se kamen u obliku dijamanta u sredini i tri pravokutna kamena sa obje strane, ovalni kamen u sredini okružen s dva pravokutna kamena. Nosači kamenja su zlatni s plavim obrisima. Kao i na prijestolju, kamenje je naizmjenično crveno i zeleno, ali ovdje postoji zanimljiva dorada: neki od kamenova (treći, peti, šesti i sedmi računajući slijeva) su u dva tona iste boje. U slučaju crvenog kamenja, dublji ton daje crveno staklo, svjetlije pomoću kockica različitih boja koje su umočene u crvenu olovnu boju. U slučaju zelenog kamenja, lišće zeleno i plavo-zeleno staklo dalo je potrebna dva tona. Promatranjem ovog segmenta mozaika moguće je odrediti slijed u kojem su radovi izvedeni. Prvo je napravljen lik Djevice i djeteta. Drugo, kreator mozaika napravio je plavi obris podnožja, čije su tesere u skladu s donjom linijom djevičanske stole. Treće, gornje i donje obrise prednjeg dijela podnožja obrubio je s četiri vodoravna niza zlatnih kockica. Next, he set the stones and pearls, working from right to left and from bottom to top: note that the mount of the central diamond-shaped stone is, for lack of room, amputated at the top, as are also the two one on each side of it.

An irregular area of gold ground surrounding the Virgin and Child was set in the same bed of plaster as the figure. The limits of this area are indicated by a suture which is, for the most part, easily discernible. Anticipating our detailed observations on this suture, we may proceed to describe the probable sequence in which the mosaics of the semi dome were made. In the first place, the entire semi dome, roughly by the tops of the windows, was covered with a preliminary coating of plaster containing an appreciable proportion of chopped straw. Upon this first coating was laid a second thickness of plaster corresponding to the area intended for the figural composition and allowing sufficient room all round it. The setting bed of finer plaster was then applied, probably in smaller sections, although the boundaries between them cannot be traced. As usual, the artist proceeded to paint upon the setting-bed the subject of his composition, and in so doing he coloured yellow the background forming the immediate surround of the figure. The figural mosaic was then made, starting at the top and working downward. The composition turned out to be somewhat taller than originally envisaged, with the result that its lower extremity came to the very edge of the bed of plaster that had been laid and, incidentally, rather too close to the top of the central window. It may be observed that the rear right post of the throne came so close to the edge of the plaster that its corner had to be rounded off. Possibly, additional patches of plaster had to be added to accommodate parts of the composition, and this may explain some of the irregularities we have observed, e.g., the change in the material used for the outline at the lower extremity of the left-hand post of the throne. A trim of gold tesserae, two to four rows wide, was then made round the entire composition, after which the mosaic creator proceeded to cover with gold as much of the plaster bed as had been laid. He knew that the gold cubes had to be set on concentric curves, but he did not take the trouble of marking out exact setting-lines, with the result that he sometimes misjudged the direction of the lines and had to correct himself by inserting wedge-shaped patches of gold mosaic. After this process had been completed, the remainder of the conch was covered with a second, and then a third layer of plaster. This time the craftsman took a centre point immediately above the Virgin's head and probably using a long cord attached to a pin, marked out a number of concentric semicircles. A small area of loss to the south of the composition and more or less level with the Child's head has enabled us to ascertain that these guide-lines were indicated in red paint upon the second coat of plaster. The over-all, gold background was laid with the help of these guide-lines, but with the inevitable result that the rows of tesserae did not exactly line up with those in the gold ground belonging to the immediate surround of the figure.
The average size of the cubes used in the background is 5 to 6 mm², and there are roughly 225 of them per 10 cm². Mixed with the gold is an appreciable proportion of silver tesserae. This admixture is least in the immediate surround of the figure and more considerable in the over-all back- ground, but there is no consistency about the proportion of silver, which in places is as much as 10%, in others almost nil. In addition to the silver, there is also a sprinkling of red glass cubes in the over-all background, a peculiarity we have also observed in the mosaic of St. Ignatius Theophoros in the north tympanum. The underpainting on the setting-bed of the over-all gold background (as distinct from that of the gold surround of the figure) is red.

The face of the apse semi dome was occupied by an inscription commemorating the restoration of religious images after the defeat of Iconoclasm. The full text, preserved in the Palatine Anthology was as follows: The images which the impostors had cast down here pious emperors have again set up. Today, only the very beginning and end of the inscription remain. The same letters were uncovered by the Fossati brothers in 1847 - 49, whose record of them is, however, rather confused. The identification of the preserved fragments with the distich in the Anthology is due to Antoniades. The inscription was written in capital letters 0.40 m high on a gold band 0.54 to 0.57 m wide. The letters are in dark blue glass. The background is gold with a small admixture of silver, set in widely spaced rows of angled tesserae, as was often done on vertical surfaces. The setting-bed under the gold was painted yellow.

Sumptuous garland borders were placed on either side of the commemorative inscription (i.e., one running round the soffit of the bema arch along its eastern edge, the other convex and folded over the rim of the apse semi-dome), along the base of the apse semi-dome, and under both archangels at the springing of the bema arch: roughly seventy running meters in all, of which about forty-four are preserved, either entirely or in part. Furthermore, a similar garland border at a somewhat smaller scale, and again convex, folds round the interior edges of the five windows of the apse, totaling about thirty-one running meters.
The garland borders are delimited by a double outline normally consisting of three rows (two round the windows) of terracotta tesserae or marble tesserae dipped in burnt umber paint, and of two rows of white marble tesserae. Within this outline the background is gold with an admixture of silver cubes. The garland itself consists of a dark blue sheaf bordered on either side with a row of green bay leaves. The leaves are inclined in the direction in which the garland is proceeding, and the tips of the leaves are, here and there, bent over backwards. Round the blue sheaf is twined spirally a silver (occasionally white marble) ivy vine. Attached to this vine, in addition to normal spade-shaped leaves, are five-petal flowers, clusters of berries, and pears, all usually in silver. The space between each turn of the vine is filled with a variety of vegetal motifs, to wit, curving stems bearing pomegranates, pears, and circular flowers on short straight stems. The pears and flowers are usually arranged in rows of three. In the intervening spaces are sprinkled circular berries, either red or gold.
Wherever the garland has to turn at a right angle, it is contained in a kind of L -shaped tube which gives the appearance of being made of silver. The rotundity of this tube is indicated by parallel bands of colours, usually white limestone or marble in the middle, shading off on either side first to silver, then to turquoise, then to dark blue. The ends of the tube are folded over, and there is a two-tone red ribbon twined round the tube. If we conceive the garlands as proceeding out of these corner tubes, there is a centre point at which two converging garlands meet. This point is occupied by a star-shaped flower, such as the one directly under the south archangel. Another, incompletely preserved, flower remains at the apex of the bema arch. The flower under the archangel has a centre of turquoise glass, four trefoil petals in red glass and terracotta, and four pointed gold petals. A similar flower occupies the apex of each of the five windows of the apse.
The window borders are of similar design, except that the horizontal band at the base of the windows, being only about 0.25 m wide, has the sheaf without the green leaves. In windows 2 and 3 it is clearly seen that the vertical bands of border were made first and the horizontal band next on a separate bed of plaster, with a straight joint on either side.
Given the considerable length of the garland borders, it is only natural that we should encounter in them some differences of detail. The most carefully executed stretch is at the base of the apse semi-dome, between windows 1 and 3. The length of border between window No. 1 and the face of the apse is of somewhat looser construction: the round flowers and pears (which here have long stems) are not lined up, as elsewhere, in neat vertical rows, and there are no pomegranates. In spite of such inconsistencies, there is an undeniable uniformity both of technique and materials in all of the garland borders. Especially noticeable is the extensive use throughout the garlands and always in the same contexts of painted tesserae. In addition to the red and white outline, these occur in the ribbons that are looped round the corner tubes, in the pears, the pomegranates, the stems and in the small round berries. The latter appear to have been further touched up with red lead paint, as is also the case with the feet of the south archangel.

This text is from The Apse Mosaics of St. Sophia at Istanbul. Report on Work Carried out in 1964 Author(s): Cyril Mango and Ernest J. W. Hawkins
Author(s): Cyril Mango and Ernest J. W. Hawkins

&diams Bosphorus Strait - A natural strait that connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara and separates Europe from Asia
&diams Beylerbeyi Palace - one of the most magnificent Ottoman coastal palaces built in 1865
&diams Dolmabahce Palace Museum - The 19th century glamorous palace of Ottoman Sultans
&diams Hagia Sophia of Istanbul - The Church of Holy Wisdom built in 535 by Emperor Justinian
&diams Hippodrome (Atmeydani) - The stadium of ancient Byzantium, which once could hold 100.000 spectators
&diams Topkapi Palace Museum - The former seating residence of Ottoman Sultans built between 1459 & 1465


It did not take long for the construction of a railway tunnel under Istanbul’s Bosphorus strait in 2005 to hit a snag. A fourth-century Byzantine harbour, and amphorae and skulls dating back to 6,000 BCE, were unearthed. In his usual rhetoric, Turkey’s president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan later denounced the archaeological discovery as çanak çömlek (pots and pans) delaying his global ambitions for the city. The western media scoffed at his disregard for cultural heritage. Istanbulites waited in standstill traffic on the Bosphorus bridges.

When the past and present exist as materially and simultaneously as they do in Istanbul, they are declared to be embodied in or represented by physical places, objects or people. Even though none of these things manage to carry such symbolic weight with any coherence, the associations need only be made long enough to weaponise them for politics. Istanbul’s Hagia Sophia, an Eastern Orthodox church turned Ottoman mosque turned museum, has been weaponised according to the politics of the day for as long as it has stood, and it has stood since 537 CE. Built by Justinian I and turned into a mosque by Sultan Mehmed II in 1453, the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire saw modern Turkey’s founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk turn Hagia Sophia into a museum in 1934. On 2 July 2020, Turkish courts ruled that this decree had been unlawful. Erdoğan took the opportunity to jubilantly declare preparations were under way for it to reopen as a mosque on 24 July.

The impending or actual destruction of culture anywhere should, and does, evoke visceral responses. But in the case of Hagia Sophia, coverage seems to have confused the weaponisation of culture with the destruction of culture. If you reduce history to the ‘clash of civilisations’ narrative (namely between Christianity and Islam, as if either are homogenous), you see the world as a balance sheet of victories and defeats in which the side you are on is that of ‘progress’. The president of Turkey, as others do too in the UK, partakes of such views. It is superficial, if not unsurprising, that a global news media that deals in easily digestible dichotomies has approached Hagia Sophia through this lens.

Expressions of lament and loss have dominated US and UK media coverage in particular, with commentators framing the court ruling as a ‘regression’. The viewpoint underlying many of these reactions, however, is something decidedly ne being discussed: the uncritical assumption that ‘progress’ was made when the sacred was turned into the secular. That for a historic place to no longer be a museum is to go ‘backward’, presumably because museums (humanistic and progressive spaces) are to be preferred to places of worship (ideological and partisan spaces).

The ongoing debates around the decolonisation of museums have repeatedly tried to illustrate how the positioning of museums and statues as neutral pedagogical tools is part and parcel of the mechanisms of power. Museums as objective caretakers of what is often vaguely termed our ‘human heritage’ is a narrative long utilised to minimise the actual political and military force that brought objects into their halls. Our cultural spaces are not outside but a part of the political regimes we live in. In other words, they implicitly instruct us that the world consists of others, who are incapable of safeguarding cultural wealth, and us, who have ‘progressed’ towards doing so.

The transformation of Hagia Sophia into a museum by decree in 1934 was a pedagogical move, too. At the time, many of Atatürk’s tenets – secularisation, westernisation, Turkish nationalism – were alien to the ethno-religiously diverse region. The break from the past had to be given physical form to help consolidate the new nation. This is not to accept as legitimate Erdogan’s equally political motivations for pushing through a re-conversion. It is to recognise that Hagia Sophia the museum was as ideological as Hagia Sophia the mosque and the church.

An opportunity is being missed here to disentangle what a progressive position is from a Eurocentric one. Can this moment be one where we instead question the right of leaders, past and present, to instrumentalize sacred spaces for nation-consolidation? Can we not conceive of a demand for a multi-faith place of worship, which would give us Istanbulites, especially our oppressed religious minorities, the right to experience the heart of our city – not by paying a museum entrance fee, but as a living thing? However unlikely this may seem in the current political climate, it is the kind of radically different future we need to keep insisting on – even and especially when false dichotomies are put to us.

Sarah Jilani is a writer on art and culture – her work has appeared in Ekonomist i Times književni dodatak. She is a doctoral candidate in postcolonial literatures at the University of Cambridge.


Aja Eirene u Carigradu

Hagia Eirene, započeta 532., obnovljena nakon potresa 740. godine u Carigradu (Istanbul) (foto: Gryffindor, CC0)

Car Justinijan je u šestom stoljeću izgradio crkvu Hagia Eirene u Carigradu (Istanbul), ali kupola crkve nije bila dobro poduprta, a zgrada je teško oštećena u potresu 740. Car Konstantin V, koji je vladao od 741–775. , obnovljena Hagia Eirene sredinom do kraja 750 -ih.

Konstantin V - koji se kao ikonoklast protivio slikovnim prikazima Krista i svetaca - zaslužan je za ukrašavanje apside crkve s križem, što su ikonoklasti smatrali prihvatljivim. Križni mozaik liberalno koristi skupe materijale, poput zlata i srebra. Vješti umjetnici koji su stvorili mozaik savili su ruke križa prema dolje kako bi kompenzirali zakrivljenost kupole tako da se poprečna lajsna činila ravno gledateljima koji stoje na podu crkve.

Mozaik apside s križem, Hagia Eirene, obnovljen nakon 740. godine, Carigrad (Istanbul) (foto: bizantolog, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Jasno je da su se ikonoklasti suprotstavljali određenim vrstama religijskih slika, ali nisu u potpunosti odbacili umjetnost, a ponekad su bili i važni zaštitnici umjetnosti i arhitekture, kao što je bio i Konstantin V. Postoje i dokazi da je car Teofil, koji je vladao tijekom druge faze ikonoklazma - proširila i raskošno ukrasila carsku palaču i druge prostore.


Byzantine and Medieval Art: Teaching Christianity

In the century before Christ, Rome displaced the dominance of Seleucid and Ptolemaic Greek empires. Yet Roman culture was largely shaped by Greek influence. For example, Roman art absorbed and emulated Hellenistic models. Indeed, we know many Greek pieces as Roman copies. Scholars still debate whether Laocoön is a Greek original or a Roman copy.[7]

And then came Christianity. Unlike Judaism, Christianity affirms a physical, incarnate God. It reinterpreted the Jewish abhorrence of idolatry to permit images of the Christ. Early Christian art reflected the ethos of small churches that met in private homes and tended to the needs of humble people, especially women and slaves. The Savior was inscribed as a humble shepherd into the walls and ceilings of burial catacombs outside Rome.

Christ as the Good Shepherd . (3rd C). Fresco. Catacomb of Priscilla Christ as the Good Shepherd. (3rd Century). Catacomb of Domitilla. Fresco.

In the early 4th Century, however, an alliance between the Roman Emperor Constantine changed the world, the church, and Western art. Imperial bishops demanded that all aspects of life, including art, focus on Christian themes. Constantinople, the new imperial capital, honored emperors, Christ, and the Virgin mother in a Byzantine style. In the 6th Century, the Emperor Justinian rebuilt the Cathedral of Constantinople, the seat of imperial church authority. Aja Sofija (The church of Holy Wisdom) was one of the grandest buildings on earth with the largest dome. It testified to God’s grandeur, but probably more to the power of the Empire that now equated its interests with Christ’s.

Hagia Sophia . 6th C. Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) Christ Pantocrator . Mosaic, Hagia Sophia. Virgin and Child . Mary as Queen of Heaven. Mosaic, Hagia Sophia.

The interior of Hagia Sophia was ricly decorated with Mosaics :

The mosaics of Hagia Sophia would set the standard for centuries of Byzantine Art throughout the Christianized Empire and Medieval Europe. In a sharp departure from the Classical Greek and Roman Aesthetic , Byzantine artists were constrained by church and empire to focus solely on instructing the faithful in theology and worship. To use a concept from last week, the Byzantine enterprise was a strong example of Didactic Art . An Icon , an image of Christ, the Virgin Mary, or a saint, schooled often believers in the faith and focused their worship of the Lord and their veneration of saints. [8] But Christian faithfulness had also come to mean fidelity to the Empire that had fused with the Church. You can see this fusion in Byzantine images, in which Christ the humble shepherd becomes Christ the emperor, robed in purple, the emperor’s color. Mary becomes Queen of Heaven, her divine child on her lap. As we saw last week, the “Madonna” image was repeated in monumental churches from Asia Minor to the Britain [9].

[8] With little time to explicate the complex issue of veneration of saints, let’s try to summarize it briefly. The Church always condemned worship directed toward anyone but God. However, it encouraged believers to venerate saints who had earned special favor through martyrdom of holy living. Ikone (holy images) of the saints and relics from their lives—bones, clothing, possessions—were used for intercessory prayer. The supplicant brought a request to the saint who resided in favor with God in the hope that God would be more likely to grant requests presented by favored saints. Art was deeply involved in these rituals.
[9] The Virgin Mary began to be venerated as the Queen of Heaven as early as the 3rd Century. This designation became a major focus in Medieval Christianity.

Didactic Art generally loses interest in Mimesis and adopts a fixed style. The Stylized art of Bizantski images display little depth. The figures are abstractions with little individuality. They do not move, display little emotion and are not placed in any particular time or place. The image transcends time, including figures from different eras of Christian history. As we saw in Egyptian art, this timeless constancy affirms eternal authority, in this case that of God and the Queen of Heaven.

Between the 5th and 7th centuries, Imperial rule in the West—basically, Europe—collapsed in waves of migration from Germanic peoples. Warrior tribal chieftains assumed control of local lands and adopted the titles of the old Empire. But they had little interest in the Classical tradition of learning and art. They converted to Christianity and delegated to monks and bishops the tasks of administration, law, and learning. As knowledge of Greek dissipated, all but a tiny portion of Greek learning was lost to the West for roughly 1,000 years. Church scholars monopolized Latin learning and the churches monopolized art. Anonymous a rtists designed and decorated churches, created altar pieces for worship, and illustrated Bibles and prayer books.

Ezra the scribe . (7th Century). Book illustration. Saints Peter, Hermagoras, Fortunatu s. (c. 1180). Fresco. Cimabue. (c. 1290). Madonna and Child with Saint John the Baptist and Saint Peter. Tempera on panel.

For centuries, European artists worked for the church and channeled the standard conventions of Byzantine icons. The image of St. Peter and two later saints affirms the passing of divine authority from generation to generation. As in Byzantine art, it lacks depth of field, mimetic modeling, time, and place. In Medieval Europe, art was almost completely monopolized by the church. Cimabue’s depiction of the Holy Mother and Child was composed in the early the 13th century. Cimabue is working in tempera on wood, not mosaics, but we see that Byzantine style nearly unchanged after a thousand years: flat, expressionless, timeless, and wholly theological. By the 14th Century, European art had strayed very far from its roots in Classical Greece. To se trebalo promijeniti.

Reference

Christ as the Good Shepherd [Fresco]. (3rd Century). Catacomb of Domitilla. Fresco. Rome, Italy. Wikipedia https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Good_Shepherd_04.jpg.

Christ as the Good Shepherd. [Fresco]. (3rd century). Good Shepherd Cubiculum of the Donna Velata, Rome, Italy: Catacomb of Priscilla. ARTstor https://library-artstor-org.ezproxy.bethel.edu/asset/SCALA_ARCHIVES_10310196962 .

Ezra the scribe. [Illustration] (692). Folio 5r from the Codex Amiatinus. Florence, Italy: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, MS Amiatinus. Wikimedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CodxAmiatinusFolio5rEzra.jpg.

Mosaic (2008). [Article]. In Darvill, T. (Ed.). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 8 Dec. 2019, from https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199534043.001.0001/acref-9780199534043-e-2628.

wall or floor decorations made up of many cubes of clay, stone, or glass blocks (tesserae) of different colors. Mosaics may be either geometrijski, composed of linear patterns or motifs, or figured, with representations of deities, mythological characters, animals, and recognizable objects. Extremely popular in the Greco‐Roman world and Byzantine art (Mosaic).

a style of Christian art developed in the Eastern Roman Empire after the 4th Century to represent Jesus and saints, usually the Virgin Mary, as icons to focus worship and prayer. An “orthodox dogma, serious, other-worldly, conservative style … charged with theological meaning” (Byzantine Art).

in the Euro-American tradition, a reference to the works, styles, and themes of Greek and Roman antiquity. More generally, an aesthetic valuing clarity, order, balance, unity, symmetry, and dignity, usually honoring a cultural tradition associated with some golden age of the past.

a particular set of values regarding art, taste, and the subjective experience of beauty, ugliness, the sublime, etc. A culture, a school of artists, an individual artist, or an audience can be said to have an aesthetic

art styled in the manner of Byzantine icons: depictions of Christ, the Virgin Mary, or saints in an abstract manner—flat, timeless, emotionless, placeless. Often composed in mosaic, fresco, or paint on panel.

art that is instructive, designed to impart information, advice, or some doctrine of morality or philosophy. The dominant focus of most ancient and Medieval art (didactic).

devotional image of Jesus or the saints from the Byzantine or Orthodox tradition intended to focus worship and prayer with an evocation of “the presence of the saint or mystery” (Icon).

a function of art in which technique imitates nature as closely as possible. Often contrasted with stilizirani Tehnike.

figurative visual representation seeking to typify its referent through simplification, exaggeration, or idealization rather than to represent unique characteristics through naturalism (Stylization).


The doctrine of the Virgin Mary and holy Wisdom

The dogma of the Virgin Mary as both the “mother of God” and the “bearer of God” is connected in the closest way with the dogma of the incarnation of the divine Logos. The theoretical formation of doctrine did not bring the veneration of the mother of God along in its train. Instead, the doctrine only reflected the unusually great role that this veneration already had taken on at an early date in the liturgy and in the church piety of orthodox faithful.

The expansion of the veneration of the Virgin Mary as the bearer of God ( Theotokos) and the formation of the corresponding dogma constitute one of the most-astonishing occurrences in the history of the early church. The New Testament offers only scanty points of departure for that development. Although she has a prominent place in the narratives of the Nativity and the Passion of Christ, Mary completely recedes behind the figure of Jesus, who stands in the centre of all four Gospels. From the Gospels themselves it can be recognized that Jesus’ development into the preacher of the Kingdom of God took place in sharp opposition to his family, who were so little convinced of his mission that they held him to be insane (Mark 3:21) in a later passage Jesus refuses to recognize them (Mark 3:31). Accordingly, all the Gospels stress the fact that Jesus separated himself from his family. Even the Gospel According to John still preserved traces of Jesus’ tense relationship with his mother. Mary appears twice without being called by name the mother of Jesus, and Jesus himself regularly withholds from her the designation of mother.

Nevertheless, with the conception of Jesus Christ as the Son of God, a tendency developed early in the church to grant to the mother of the Son of God a special place within the church. That development was sketched quite hesitantly in the New Testament. Only the Gospels of Matthew and Luke mention the virgin birth. On those scanty presuppositions the later veneration of the mother of God was developed. The view of the virgin birth entered into the Apostle’s Creed and became one of the strongest religious impulses in the development of the dogma, liturgy, and ecclesiastical piety of the early church.

Veneration of the mother of God received its impetus when the Christian Church became the imperial church. Despite the lack of detail concerning Mary in the Gospels, cultic veneration of the divine virgin and mother found within the Christian Church a new possibility of expression in the worship of Mary as the virgin mother of God, in whom was achieved the mysterious union of the divine Logos with human nature. The spontaneous impulse of popular piety, which pushed in this direction, moved far in advance of the practice and doctrine of the church. In Egypt Mary was, at an early point, already worshipped under the title of Theotokos—an expression that Origen used in the 3rd century. The Council of Ephesus (431) raised that designation to a dogmatic standard. To the latter the second Council of Constantinople (553) added the title “eternal Virgin.”

The doctrine of the heavenly Wisdom (Sophia) represents an Eastern Church particularity. In late Judaism, speculations about the heavenly Wisdom—a figure beside God that presents itself to humanity as mediator in the work of creation as well as mediator of the knowledge of God—abounded. In Roman Catholic doctrine, Mary, the mother of God, was identified with the figure of the divine Wisdom. That process of treating Mary and the heavenly Wisdom alike did not take place in the realm of Eastern Orthodoxy or of Oriental Orthodoxy. For all their veneration of the mother of God, those churches never forgot that the root of that veneration lay in the incarnation of the divine Logos that took place through her. Within Eastern Orthodox theology a specific doctrine of the heavenly Wisdom, Sophianism, may be found alongside the doctrine of the mother of God. The numerous great churches of Hagia Sophia, foremost among them the cathedral by that name in Constantinople (Istanbul), are consecrated to that figure of the heavenly Wisdom.


Respond to this Question

Probability

Sophia is vacationing in Monte Carlo. On any given night, she takes X dollars to the casino and returns with Y dollars. The random variable X has the PDF shown in the figure. Conditional on X=x , the continuous random variable Y

Engleski

Identify the incorrect word in the sentence. My point was that Sophia's presentation was better than your's or mine. A. mine B. Sophia's C. your's ***** D. no error Identify the sentence in which the underlined verb does not agree

Area of polygons - math

The sixth-grade art students are making a mosaic using tiles in the shape of right triangles. Each tile has leg measures of 3 centimeters and 5 centimeters. If there are 200 tiles in the mosaic, what is the area of the mosaic? Kako

Students in a sixth-grade art class are making a mosaic using tiles in the shape of right triangles. The two sides of each tile that meet to form a right angle are 3 centimeters long and 5 centimeters long. If there are 200 tiles

Damien has designed a sculpture to enter in an art show. The sculpture is a composite shape made from two square pyramids and is covered in pieces of mosaic tile. 22in 16in and 30in What is the area of the sculpture that is

Fizika

Two children are playing on two trampolines. The first child can bounce 1.6 times higher than the second child. The initial speed up of the second child is 5.2 m/s. (a) Find the maximum height the second child reaches. (b) What is

World History

How did Constantinople's Church of Hagia Sophia demonstrate how the Byzantine Empire blended with the old Roman Empire? A.) The church combined both Greek and Roman architecture, and became a melting pot where Eastern and Western

Calculus/math

Suppose that the demand function for a consumer item is given by q = D(p) = 411 - 3p where p is the price in dollars for one item and q is the number of units. If the marginal revenue is 5 dollars per each item that's made and

World History

Which best describes the purpose and outcomes of the First Crusade? Pope Urban II called for crusaders to protect pilgrims and defend the Holy Land, resulting in Europeans recapturing Jerusalem. Pope Urban II declared war against

Damien has designed a sculpture to enter in an art show. The sculpture is a composite shape made from two square pyramids and is covered in pieces of mosaic tile 22in, 30in, 16in What is the area of the sculpture that is covered

World history

Which best describes the purpose and outcomes of the First Crusade? 1. Pope Urban II called for protection of the Hagia Sophia and Constantinople, resulting in the defeat of Saladin. 2. Pope Urban II declared war against the

Statistics

A production process produces an item, On average, 13% of all items produced are defective. Each item is inspected before being shipped, and the inspector misclassifies an item 12% of the time. What proportion of the items will be


Aja Sofija

The Church of Divine Wisdom – Hagia Sophia – has a place among the greatest architectural masterpieces of the world. Through the ages the church has undergone many changes and alterations, but nothing can ruin the awe and magic that visitors feel.

The church was inaugurated in 537 under the Emperor Justinian. In the Frankish period, Hagia Sophia was converted into a Roman Catholic Church. After 1453 it served as mosque, eventually being turned into a museum in 1935. The buttresses, that were added to support the massive building, have altered the outer shape partially, as have the added minarets and mausoleums.

In order to replace the two older, wooden basilicas, which had burned down one after the other near the palace and the Hippodrome, Justinian decided to build a bigger and grander church on the site. The emperor assigned the construction of the church to the architects Anthemius and Isidore, who for the first time added a large dome to the square basilica plan. The weight of the dome is distributed through the pendentives to four massive pillars. Between them four large arches are formed, above which the dome appears to float.

The central space is flanked both on the north and south sides by aisles with a double narthex to the west. The outer surface of the brick walls were not plastered with mortar, but lined with slabs of white marble. The Patriarchal Palace was located in the southwestern corner of Hagia Sophia and was a long, two-story, domed hall that today lies in ruins.

The historian of the Justinian era, Procopius, in his book Buildings of Justinian, describes in detail the construction of the church. It is known from the sources that the first dome collapsed in 558 after an earthquake. The new dome’s diameter of 31 meters and height of 55.6 meters, from floor level, was designed by Isidore the Younger, who was the nephew of the original architect.

Interior of Hagia Sophia as rendered by Gaspari Fossati in 1852. Lithograph by Louis Haghe, public domain.

The 100 windows of the church allow sunlight to illuminate the entire space brightly. The interior walls are covered with colorful marbles and columns of green or red marble bearing capitals of white marble. Historical evidence can provide us only a faint idea about the luxury of the lost decorations. The altar was decorated with gold and semiprecious stones and topped with a silver ciborium. The iconostasis was made of marble slabs and silver columns, the pulpit from marble and ivory. The precious relics, kept in the sacristy, were innumerable. The interior decoration with gilded mosaics was so impressive that it inspired awe in the faithful. Travellers from Kiev, who visited the monument in 988, were so overwhelmed that they reported not knowing if they were in heaven or on earth.

Initially, in the Justinian era, the church was decorated with non-representational mosaics (crosses, geometric designs, acanthus), with the oldest surviving figurative mosaics dating to the period after the end of iconoclasm in 843.

Southwestern entrance mosaic of Hagia Sophia. The Virgin Mary is standing in the middle, holding the Child Christ on her lap. On her right side stands emperor Justinian I, offering a model of the Hagia Sophia. On her left, emperor Constantine I, presenting a model of the city. Public domain.

A wonderful example from the 10th century in the inner narthex shows the Virgin and Child enthroned, flanked by Constantine the Great and Justinian, who present her with models of the City and Hagia Sophia respectively. Another exquisite mosaic over the Royal Gate depicts Emperor Leo VI kneeling before the enthroned Christ.

The resurrection fresco in the Chora Church, public domain.

This unique combination of elegant Late Middle Byzantine architecture and painting is located on the sixth hill of Constantinople, outside the orginal walls of Constantine the Great and the location is probably why it was named Chora – meaning countryside.

The church, dedicated to Christ the Savior and the Virgin Mary, was founded in the 11th century by Maria Doukaina, mother-in-law of Emperor Alexios Komnenos, while in the 14th century, Theodore Metochites, a senior official of the state and a great scholar, built the outer narthex and the south chapel. Most importantly, the church is decorated with excellent mosaics and frescoes and preserved in the inner narthex one fresco shows Metochites offering a model of the church to Christ.

The monument is covered with six domes, two on the inner narthex, one in the chapel, one in the nave and two in the side arches of the sanctuary. The surviving representations of the main church and the chapel depict the childhood of Christ and his genealogy as well as scenes from the life of the Virgin Mary. Often the sources for the images are esoteric theological texts, very widespread in the Middle Ages. The mosaics exude lyricism and gentleness, reflecting the splendor of Constantinopolean art. The murals do not have intense shadings, but emphasize contrast with bright colors. The most impressive fresco is that of the resurrection with Jesus arrayed in white garments to retrieve Adam and Eve from Hades, symbolizing his gift of eternal life through sacrifice. Without exaggeration the monastery of Chora is, as has been written, “one of the most important and most beautiful galleries in the world.”

Pammakaristos Monastery

Pammakaristos Monastery Church, courtesy of Vladimir Menkov, CC.

The Pammakaristos monastic complex, which played an important role in the history of the City, was built in the 13th century, during the reign of Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologus. Here are buried the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, his daughter Anna Komnene and many members of the Palaiologos dynasty. The monastery belongs to the type of one-room domed church and retains almost intact the marvelous façades, where bricks and stones alternate with ornate marble details. In the 14th century the southern burial chapel was added, which is dedicated to Christ and has mosaics of exquisite craftsmanship. After the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans the Pammakaristos Monastery served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate for about a century until its conversion into a mosque.

Church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus

Church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus, courtesy of Vladimir Menkov, CC.

This extremely ornate church was built in the 6th century at the beginning of the reign of Justinian and is by many considered to have been a model for the construction of Hagia Sophia a few years later. The Ottomans named it Küçük Ayasofya Camii, meaning “little Hagia Sophia.” It was located between two important buildings, which have since been destroyed: the palace of Hormisdas where Justinian lived with Theodora before being crowned emperor and the church of Saints Peter and Paul. The outside masonry consists of ordinary bricks and forms a plan of an irregular octagon within a rectangle. The large central dome, which consists of 16 sides with eight windows, rests on 8 wide arches supported by eight massive piers. The two-story ambulatory spaces between the piers is occupied by 28 marble columns. The alternation of green and red marble columns, the fine monograms of Justinian and Theodora on the column capitals and the carved Greek inscription running along the architrave with the names of the church founders make the monument probably the second most important church in Constantinople after Hagia Sophia.


Gledaj video: Srednji Vijek: Zvukovi Aja Sofije (Kolovoz 2022).