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Hugh O'Donnell

Hugh O'Donnell


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Hugh O'Donnell, jedno od 15 djece, rođen je u Buckhavenu u Škotskoj 31. kolovoza 1913. Hugh i njegov brat Francis O'Donnell igrali su lokalni nogomet za Wellesley Juniors prije nego što su se pridružili Celticu 1930.

O'Donnell je igrao s lijeve strane za svoj klub, dok je njegov brat bio centarfor kluba. Nakon pet uspješnih godina u Celticu, dva brata prebačena su u Preston North End u ljeto 1935. godine.

Hugh je debitirao zajedno sa svojim bratom u Huddersfield Townu na dan otvaranja sezone 1935-36. Imao je uspješnu prvu godinu postigavši ​​15 golova u 39 ligaških utakmica. Bio je samo dva iza najboljeg strijelca, Jimmyja Maxwella.

Dva su brata obojica bili članovi ekipe koja je 1937. stigla do finala FA kupa. Preston je u finalu pobijedio Stoke (4. kolo), Exeter City (5. kolo), Tottenham Hotspur (6. kolo) i West Bromwich Albion (polufinale). FA kup. Međutim, u finalu ih je Sunderland pobijedio sa 3-1.

Na početku sljedeće sezone, Preston North End upisao je dva važna potpisa. U rujnu 1937. Preston je od Manchester Uniteda za 5.000 funti kupio najbolje ocijenjenog Georgea Mutcha. Sljedećeg mjeseca Robert Beattie, vješt napadač, stigao je iz Kilmarnocka za naknadu od 2500 funti. Pridružili su se kolegama Škotima, Hughu O'Donnellu, Francisu O'Donnellu, Jimmyju Dougalu, Andrewu Beattieju, Jimmyju Maxwellu, Tomu Smithu i Billu Shanklyu sa strane.

Ova dominirana Škotska završila je na 3. mjestu u Prvoj ligi nogometne lige s 49 bodova. Više bodova osvojili su samo Arsenal (52) i Wolverhampton Wanderers (51). Još jednom je Preston imao još jednu dobru vožnju po kupu. U polufinalu su pobijedili West Ham United (3-0), Leicester City (2-0), Arsenal (1-0), Brentford (3-0) i Aston Villa, 2-1.

U finalu FA kupa 1938. Preston je igrao s Huddersfield Townom. Ovo je bio prvi put da je cijeli meč prikazan uživo na televiziji. Čak i tako, daleko je više ljudi gledalo utakmicu na stadionu jer je tada samo oko 10.000 ljudi posjedovalo televizore. U prvih 90 minuta nije postignut nijedan gol, pa su odigrani produžeci. U posljednjoj minuti produžetka, Bill Shankly je ubacio Georgea Mutcha na gol. Alf Young, središnja polovica Huddersfielda, srušio ga je s leđa, a sudac je bez oklijevanja pokazao na jedanaesterac. Mutch se ozlijedio u priboju, ali je nakon liječenja ustao i zabio preko prečke. Bio je to jedini pogodak na utakmici.

Na kraju sezone Hugh O'Donnell i njegov brat Francis O'Donnell prebačeni su u Blackpool. Međutim, odigrao je samo 14 utakmica za svoj novi klub zbog izbijanja Drugog svjetskog rata.

Nakon rata igrao je za Rochdale (1946-47) i Halifax Town (1947-48).

Hugh O'Donnell umro je 9. svibnja 1965. godine.


O'DONNELL, HUGH ROE

Vladar autonomne irske države T í r Chonaill i glavni saveznik Hugha o'neilla u ratu Katoličkih konfederacija (1594 – 1603) b. Ballyshannon ?, Donegal, 29. listopada 1572. pom. Simancas, Španjolska, 10. rujna 1602. Otet je u engleskoj stratišti u listopadu 1587., ali je pobjegao iz dvorca Dublin 5. siječnja 1592. i 23. travnja 1592. inauguriran je kao "Ó Domhnaill". izbacio Engleze iz franjevačke opatije Donegal i održao gotovo kontinuirani rat protiv Elizabete I. O'Neill mu se otvoreno pridružio 1595. Njegovi pohodi u Connacht 1596. i 1597. otvorili su komunikaciju sa zapadnim poglavarima radi povezivanja s pobunjenicima iz Ulstera i omogućili njihovo zajedničko pobjeda Žutog Forda 14. kolovoza 1598. ova je pobjeda potaknula južnjačke poglavice da se pridruže Konfederaciji. Njegova pobjeda Curlewsa 15. kolovoza 1599. doprinijela je frustraciji kampanje lorda zamjenika Essexa. On je pretekao O'Neilla u maršu (studeni 1601.) kako bi podržao Španjolce opkoljene u Kinsaleu. Nakon tamošnjeg irskog poraza (prosinac 1601.) otplovio je u Španjolsku kako bi zamolio Filipa III za pojačanje. Razočaran, pozlilo mu je i umro je u Simancasu. Njegova smrt ubrzala je kraj irskog vojnog otpora koji je njegov brat Ruaidhr í podnio u prosincu 1602., O'Neill, 23. ožujka 1603. Međutim, dugotrajni rat odgodio je opći progon irskih katolika i ostavio vremena za pojačanje njihovog klera iz svojih novih kontinentalnih sjemeništa.

Bibliografija: l. Ó cl É desno, Život Aodh Ruadh Ó Domhnaill, prepisao str. walsh, 2 v. (Društvo irskih tekstova 42, 45 Dublin 1948 – 57).


Život Red Hugha O'Donnella

Život crvenog Hugha O'Donnella Louisa O'Cleryja općenito je bio nepoznat sve do prijevoda Revda Denisa Murphyja na engleski jezik 1895. godine. Njegov stil kombinirao je povijest, pohvale i pijetet. Biografiju je vjerojatno napisao nakon 1616. godine, možda čak 1627. Louis, šef njegove septe, izgubio je obiteljsko naslijeđe Kilbarron u plantaži Ulster. Englezi su mu odobrili 960 hektara u obližnjem Kilmacrenanu, ali su kasnije zauzeli i ovu zemlju, ostavivši njega i njegovu obitelj siromašnima. U posljednjem odlomku svoje biografije o Red Hughu, Louis se žalio zbog nevolje domaćih Iraca:

‘Žalosno je, doista, bilo stanje Gaela u Irskoj nakon smrti pravog princa, jer su promijenili svoje karakteristike i sklonosti. Odrekli su se hrabrosti zbog kukavičluka, hrabrosti zbog slabosti, ponosa zbog servilnosti. . . Ostavili su svaku nadu u oslobađanje od bilo koga, pa je većina nakon toga pobjegla na milost i nemilost neprijateljima i neprijateljima, onima koji su im bili najplemenitiji, pod krinkom mira i prijateljstva. '


Crveni Hugh O'Donnell

KAKO JE GOSPODIN ZAMJENIK PLANIRIRAO PRAVU LUKASTU EKSPEDICIJU, I UKRADIO MLADIČKI PRINC TYRCONNELL & mdashHOW, U ZAMKASTIMA DUBLINSKOG ZAMKA, DJEČAK JE NAUČIO U HUTGU WEKTARI BEZ KOMPANE HOWTING WESTERS

U međuvremenu, godine su prolazile, a drugi Hugh se počeo uzdizati iznad sjevernog horizonta, usred znakova i smetnji koje nisu predstavljale ništa dobro kruni i vladi Pale. Ovo je bio Hugh O'Donnell & mdash & ldquoHugh Roe & rdquo ili & ldquoRed Hugh & rdquo & mdashson vladajućeg načelnika Tyrconnella.

Mladi O'Donnell, koji je u to vrijeme bio ldquoa vatrenih petnaestak, već je bio poznat u pet provincija Irske, ne samo & lsquoby izvješću o svojoj ljepoti, agilnosti i plemenitim djelima, & rsquo već i kao zakleti neprijatelj Saksoni s Pala & rdquo i sama pomisao na mogućnost da dva Hughs & mdashHugh iz Tyronea i Hugh iz Tyrconnella & mdashever tvore kombinaciju, bila je dovoljna da dublinski dvorac ispuni zaprepaštenjem.

Jer već se doista Hugh O'Neillova & ldquoloyalty & rdquo počela smatrati prilično nestabilnom.

Svakako, još se nitko nije usudio šapnuti ni riječ protiv njega u kraljičinom saslušanju, a on je i dalje bio spreman na poziv za kraljičinu borbu protiv južne Geraldine, O'Briena ili Mac Caure.

Ali oštroumni u tim stvarima primijetio je da je bio neugodno susjedski i prijateljski raspoložen sa sjevernim poglavarima i tanistima da je Hugh, sve dok nije održavao odgovarajuću zlu volju prema vladajućem O'Neillu (na kojeg ga je kraljica jednog dana mislila srušiti) zapravo se prema njemu odnosio s poštovanjem i poslušnošću.

Štoviše, & ldquothe engleski je znao, & rdquo kaže kroničar Hugha Roea, & ldquotda je Judith, kći O'Donnella i sestra prethodno spomenutog Hugha Roea, bila supružnik i najomiljeniji grof O'Neill. & rdquo

& ldquoOvih šest četa vojske također, & rdquo kaže gospodin Mitchel, & ldquothat je držao pješice (u kraljičino ime, ali zbog vlastitog ponašanja) počelo je biti sumnjičavo u očima države jer se jako boji da će promijeniti ljude pa čim oni temeljito nauče korištenje oružja, zamijenivši ih drugima, sve svoje klanove, koje marljivo vježba i pregledava za neku nepoznatu uslugu. A olovo koje uvozi & sigurno će krovovi te kuće u Dungannonu neće trebati sve te količine olova i olova dovoljno da pokriju Glenshane ili zaodjenu stranice Cairnochera. I, doista, do zamjenika u Dublinu stiže glasina da se u Dungannonu događa nevjerojatna gluma metaka. Nije ni čudo što su se oči engleske vlade počele zabrinuto okretati prema sjeveru. & Rdquo

& ldquoA ako bi ovaj kneževski Crveni Hugh preživio da preuzme vodstvo svoje runde & mdashand ako bi dva moćna poglavara sjevera zaboravila svoju drevnu svađu i ujedinila se za dobrobit Irske, & rdquo nastavlja gospodin Mitchel, & ldquothen, doista, ne samo ovo Nagodba Ulster & lsquocounties & rsquo mora se odgoditi, ne zna se koliko dugo, ali sama Pala ili Dublinski zamak teško bi mogli zaštititi časnike njezinog veličanstva. To su bile nepredviđene situacije koje svaki razboriti agent engleske kraljice mora brzo poduzeti kako bi ih spriječio, a sada ćemo vidjeti Perrotov uređaj u tu svrhu.

& ldquoBlizu Rathmullana, na zapadnoj obali Lough Swillyja, gledajući prema planinama Innishowen, stajao je samostan karmelićana i crkva posvećena Blaženoj Djevici, najpoznatijem mjestu pobožnosti u Tyrconnellu, gdje su bili svi klanovi-Connell, oba poglavara i ljudi, koji su u određeno doba godine odlazili na plaćanje svojih pobožnosti.

Ovdje su mladi Crveni Hugh, s Mac Swyneom iz borbenih sjekira, O'Gallagherom iz Ballyshannona i nekim drugim poglavicama, u ljeto 1587. boravili u tom dijelu kratko vrijeme kako bi ispunili svoje vjerske zavjete, ali ne bez stagnana i oruđa za potjeru s pogledom na srna Fanada i Innishowena.

Jednog dana, dok je princ bio ovdje, trgovački brod s brzom plovidbom udvostručio je rt Dunaffa, ustao i zasidrio se nasuprot Rathmullana a & lsquobarka, izlijeganog, obmanjujućeg & rsquo s zastavom Engleske i nudeći za prodala, kao miran trgovac, svoj teret španjolskog vina.

I zasigurno nitko uljudniji, trgovac od gospodara tog broda nije posjetio sjever mnogo godina. Pozvao je ljude koji su bili najgostoljubiviji na brodu, zamolio ih, bez obzira na to jesu li bili kupci, da mu se pridruže, zabavio ih glazbom i vinom i tako vrlo brzo stekao dobru volju svih Fanada.

Red Hugh i njegovi drugovi uskoro su čuli za uslužnog trgovca i njegova rijetka vina.

Posjetili su brod, gdje su ih primili sa svim poštovanjem, i, doista, s lažnom radošću spustili se u kabinu, i s poznavateljskom diskriminacijom pokušali i okusili, i napokon su pili pregloboko i napokon kad bi došli na palubu i vratili se u na obali, našli su se osigurani pod otvorima koje im je oružje bilo uklonjeno u noći kad su pali zatvorenici tim izdajicama Saksoncima.

Jutro je svanulo i zabrinuto su pogledali prema obali, ali, ah! gdje je Rathmullan i karmelska crkva? A kakva je ovo divlja obala?

Prošla Malin i litice Innishowena prošli su Benmore, a prema jugu do obala Antrima i planina Morne letjeli su tom zlobnom korom, i nikada se nisu sidrili sve dok nije legla ispod kula Dublina.

Izdajnički Perrot s radošću je primio svoju nagradu i & lsquoexultiran, & rsquo kaže povjesničar, & lsquo'o lakoći i uspjehu s kojim je nabavio taoce za mirno pokoravanje O'Donnella. '& Rsquo

A princ Tyrconnell je bačen u & lsquoa čvrsti kameni dvorac & rsquo i držan u teškim peglama tri godine i tri mjeseca, & lsquomeditating, & rsquo kaže kronika, o slabom i nemoćnom stanju njegovih prijatelja i rodbine, njegovih prinčeva i vrhovnih poglavara , njegovih velikaša i svećenstva, njegovih pjesnika i profesora. & rdquo [1]

Tri duge i umorne godine & mdashoh! ali činilo se da su tri doba! & mdash, mladi Hugh tugovao je u naribanim tamnicama tog & ldquoBerminghamskog tornja, & rdquo koji još uvijek stoji u dvorištu dvorca Dublin.

Kako se u ovom okrutnom zatočeništvu trgao žestoki vrući duh poletne mladosti sa sjevera.

On, koji je svakodnevno navikao udisati slobodan zrak svojih rodnih brda u zabavi potjere, sada je ostao bez daha u bliskoj i smrdljivoj atmosferi bijedne ćelije! On, radost i ponos ostarjelog oca, snažna je nada tisuću vjernih klanova i sada bio bespomoćan objekt bezobrazluka, zanemarivanja i progona tamničara!

& ldquoTri godine i tri mjeseca, & rdquo stari kroničari nam govore & mdashwhen hark! čuje se kriminalno šaputanje dok se mladi Hugh i Art Kavanagh i drugi zarobljenici susreću na kamenim stubama ili uskom odmorištu, zahvaljujući ljubaznoj ljubaznosti čuvara.

Da, Art je imao plan bijega. Pobjeći! Oh! misao šalje krv koja vruće juri venama Red Hugha. Pobjeći! Dom! Sloboda na brdima Tyrconnell još jednom! O blagoslovljene, triput blagoslovljene riječi!

Čak je i tako. I sada je sve sređeno, i odvažni pokušaj čeka, ali noć povoljna mračna i divlja & koja dolazi napokon i dok se stražari sklanjaju od nemilosrdne susnježice, mladi bjegunci, u opasnosti od života ili udova, krišom se penju ili silaze s bastiona battltment, fosse i barbican.

S kucajućim srcima prolaze kraj posljednjeg stražara, a sada se gradskim ulicama pipaju prema jugu tražeći najbližu ruku podrške usred dolina Wicklowa.

Njihov je spor i mukotrpan napredak, ne znaju staze i moraju se danju skrivati ​​i noću letjeti najbolje što mogu noću kroz šumovitu zemlju.

Na kraju prelaze planinu Tri stijene i gledaju dolje na Glencree.

Ali nažalost! Mladi Hugh iscrpljen tone. Tri godine u tamnici skučile su mu udove, a on više nije Hugh koji se poput jelena graničio na obroncima Glenvigha!

Noge su mu rastrgane i krvare od oštrog kamena i prodorne mrlje, nestalo mu je snage i ne može dalje letjeti. Poziva svoje suputnike da ubrzaju dalje i spasu se, dok se on skriva u šupu i čeka pomoć ako ga mogu poslati.

Nevoljko, i samo su popustili pred njegovim hitnim zamolbama, otišli su.

Rečeno nam je da je vjerni sluga, koji je bio u tajni Hughova bijega, i dalje ostao s njim i popravljan za pomoć u kući Felima O'Tuhala, prekrasnom mjestu čije se prebivalište danas zove Powerscourt.

Znalo se da je Felim prijatelj, iako se nije usudio otvoreno otkriti tu činjenicu. Bio je preblizu sjedišta engleske sile i bio je dužan održavati odnose s vlastima Pala.

No sada je & ldquothe bijeg zatvorenika izazvao veliko uzbuđenje u Dublinu, pa su u potrazi za njima poslani brojni bendovi. & Rdquo

Bilo je to gotovo nemoguće i sigurno sigurno puno opasnosti za prijateljskog O'Tuhala, s engleskim čistkama koje su se raširile po brdu i dolini, kako bi izveo iscrpljenog i bespomoćnog bjegunca iz svog skrovišta, gdje će ipak morati poginuti ako brzo ne stigne .

Žalosno i nevoljko Felim je bio prisiljen zaključiti da se ovaj put mora napustiti svaka nada u bijeg mladog Hugha, te da je najbolji smjer pretvarati se da ga otkriva u šumi i zaslužiti ga predati svojim progoniteljima.

Dakle, s srcem koje je puklo od pomiješanog bijesa, tuge i očaja, Hugh se ponovno našao u stisci svojih divljih neprijatelja.

Doveden je natrag u Dublin & ldquoloaded teškim željeznim okovima, & rdquo i bačen u užu i jaču tamnicu, kako bi proveo još godinu dana proklinjući dan kada je normanska noga dodirnula irsku obalu.

Tamo je ležao do Božića, 25. prosinca 1592., & ldquowhen, & rdquo kaže stara kronika, & ldquoit se Sinu Djevice činilo da je vrijeme za bijeg.

Henry i Art O'Neill, zatvorenici, bili su ovom prilikom pratitelji Hughova leta. Zapravo, lordski zamjenik, Fitzwilliam, siromašno i pokvareno stvorenje, uzeo je mito od Hugha O'Neilla kako bi sebi pružio priliku za bijeg.

Hugh od Dungannona imao je vlastite planove u želji za slobodom sve tri da se događaji dalje bilježe, a već se, poput vještog državnika, pripremao za buduće nepredviđene situacije.

Znao je da će mu oslobađanje Red Hugha dati saveznika vrijednog pola Irske, i znao je da će spašavanje dvojice O'Neilla ostaviti vladu bez & ldquoqueenovog O'Neilla & rdquo koji će se protiv njega postaviti narednog dana.

O ovom bijegu Haverty nam daje sljedeći izvještaj:

& ldquoSpuštali su se užetom kroz kanalizaciju koja se otvarala u jarak dvorca i ostavljajući tamo zaprljanu gornju odjeću, vodio ih je mladić po imenu Turlough Roe O'Hagan, povjerljivi sluga ili izaslanik grofa od Tyronea, koji je poslan da im djeluje kao vodič.

Prolazeći kroz gradska vrata, koja su još bila otvorena, trojica su stigla do iste Slieve Rue koju je Hugh prethodno posjetio.

Četvrti, Henry O'Neill, na neki je način zalutao od svojih pratilaca & vjerojatno vjerojatno prije nego što su napustili grad, ali na kraju je stigao do Tyronea, gdje ga je grof uhvatio i zatočio.

Hugh Roe i Art O'Neill sa svojim vjernim vodičem nastavili su put preko planina Wicklow prema Glenmalureu, do Feagh Maca Hugha O'Byrnea, poglavara poznatog po svom junaštvu, a koji je tada bio naoružan protiv vlade.

Art O'Neill je u zatvoru postao korpulentan, a osim toga povrijeđen je pri silasku iz dvorca, tako da se prilično umorio od umora.

Zabave su također bile iscrpljene glađu, a kako je snijeg gusto padao, a odjeća im je bila vrlo oskudna, dodatno su patili od jake hladnoće.

Neko vrijeme Red Hugh i sluga podržavali su Art između sebe, ali se ovaj napor nije mogao dugo izdržati, pa su na kraju Crveni Hugh i Art izmoreni legli pod uzvišenu stijenu i poslali slugu u Glenmalure po pomoć.

Svom mogućom brzinom Feagh O'Byrne je, primivši poruku, poslao neke od svojih pouzdanih ljudi da nose potrebnu pomoć, ali stigli su gotovo prekasno na provaliju ispod koje su ležala dva mladića.

& lsquoNjehovo tijelo, & rsquo, kažu Četiri gospodara, & lsquo bilo je prekriveno bijelim obrubom plaštanica od tuče koja se smrzavala oko njih, a njihova lagana odjeća prilijepila se za kožu, tako da se, prekrivena snijegom, nije činila muškarcima stigao da su uopće ljudska bića, jer nisu pronašli život u svojim članovima, već samo kao da su mrtvi. & rsquo

Kad je dignut, Art O'Neill je pao nazad i izdahnuo, te je pokopan na licu mjesta, ali je Red Hugh oživljen s nekim poteškoćama i odnesen u Glenmalure, gdje je izlučen u sekvestriranoj kabini i prisustvovao mu je liječnik. & Rdquo

Gospodin Mitchel nam opisuje nastavak.

& ldquoO'Byrne ih je doveo u svoju kuću i oživio, zagrijao i odjenuo, te odmah poslao glasnika Hughu O'Neillu (s kojim je tada bio u bliskom savezu) s radosnom viješću o O'Donnellovu bijegu.

O'Neill je to s oduševljenjem čuo i poslao je vjernog čuvara, Tirlough Buidhe O'Hagana, koji je dobro poznavao zemlju, da vodi mladog poglavicu u Ulster.

Nakon nekoliko dana odmora i osvježenja, O'Donnell i njegov vodič su krenuli, a irski kroničar detaljno je opisao to opasno putovanje i kako su prešli Liffey daleko na zapadu od omraženih kula Fitzwilliama, i oprezno se provozali kroz Fingal i Meath, izbjegavajući garnizoni Pale, sve dok nisu stigli u Boyne, kratku udaljenost zapadno od Inver Colpe (Drogheda), & lsquoe gdje su Danci izgradili plemeniti grad & rsquo kako su slali svoje konje kroz grad, a sami su prelazili u ribarskom čamcu kako prošli su pokraj Mellifonta, velikog samostana, koji je pripadao poznatom mladom Englezu privrženom Hughu O'Neillu, i stoga nisu naišli na prekid, jahali su ravno kroz Dundalk i ušli u prijateljsku irsku zemlju, gdje se nisu imali više čega bojati .

Jedne noći odmarali su se u Feadth Moru (The Fews), gdje je O'Neillov brat imao kuću, a sljedeći dan prešli su Blackwater kod Moya, pa tako do Dungannona, gdje ih je O'Neill dočekao s radošću.

I ovdje su dva Hugha stupila u strogo i srdačno prijateljstvo i međusobno ispričali svoje greške i svoja nadanja.

O'Neill je slušao, s takvim osjećajima kakvim se može zamisliti, priču o otmici baze mladih i okrutnom zatvaranju u tami i lancima, a nagao Hugh Roe s podrugljivim bijesom čuo je zlodjelo engleskog zamjenika prema Mac Mahonu i pokušaje njegovi prokleti šerifi i porote među starim Ircima iz Ulstera.

I duboko su se zakleli da će zauvijek pokopati nesretnu svađu svojih obitelji i stati jedni uz druge sa svim silama Sjevera protiv svog izdajničkog i nemilosrdnog neprijatelja.

Poglavari su se razišli, a O'Donnell je uz pratnju Tyrowenske konjice prošao u zemlju Mac Gwire.

Načelnik Fermanagha primio ga je s čašću, željno se pridružio konfederaciji i dao mu lsquoa crni uglačani čamac, & rsquo u kojem su princ i njegovi polaznici veslali kroz Lough Erne i kliznuli niz tu & lsquopleasant rijeku za uzgoj lososa & rsquo koja vodi do Ballyshannona i drevna sjedišta Clan-Conala.

& ldquoMožemo zamisliti s kakvom su olujnom radošću plemena Tyrconnell dočekala svog princa s onim pomiješanim sažaljenjem i gnjevom, zahvalnostima i psovkama, čuli za njegove lance i lutanja i patnje, te su vidjeli noge koje su se tako lagano vezale na nabreklim brdima i osakaćen tim okrutnim mrazom, okrutnijim okovima Saksonaca.

No sada je ostalo malo vremena za svečano veselje ili neprofitabilan luksuz psovanja, Sir Richard Bingham, engleski vođa u Connaughtu, oslanjajući se na neodlučnu prirodu starog O'Donnella, a nije bio svjestan povratka Red Hugha, poslao je dva stotinu ljudi morskim putem do Donegala, gdje su iznenadno zauzeli franjevački samostan, otjerali redovnike (malo se osvrnuvši na njihove povijesne studije i naučene anale), te su uredili zgrade za kraljicu.

Vatreni Hugh ne bi mogao izdržati da čuje za ova zvjerstva, ili je pokrio engleski garnizon na tlu Tyrconnella.

Okupio je ljude u velikoj žurbi, odmah ih odveo u Donegal i zapovjedio Englezima u određeni dan i sat da se svim brzinama odvezu natrag u Connaught i ostave za sobom bogati plijen koji su uzeli sve što su smatrali razboritim bez daljnjeg pregovaranja.

I tako su se redovnici svetog Franje vratili u svoj dom i svoje knjige, zahvalili Bogu i molili, koliko su mogli, za Hugha O'Donnella. & Rdquo


Irska povijest i rodoslovlje

Dvorac Doe, blizu Creeslougha, Co. Donegal je bio sjedište obitelji MacSweeney, koja je dvorac izgradila u 16. stoljeću. Nadimak “MacSweeney of the Battleaxe ”, bili su nasilna i burna obitelj za koju ubojstvo ili izdaja nisu imali uvrede. Doe je Inghean Dubh, supruga Hugha Roe O ’Donnell, poslala svog sina tinejdžera Red Hugha na obuku u umjetnost: književnost, glazbu, mačevanje, izdržljivost, jahanje i doista sve takve obrazovne djelatnosti koje su priličile mladom Irski princ. Čudno, čini se da je osobnost Red Hugha preživjela stoljeća, dajući mu u sjećanje gotovo magične kvalitete CuChulaina i Fionn MacCumhail. Očaranje je nemoguće definirati, ali možda više od svega, idealizam za koji su živjeli i njihova spremnost za borbu osvojili su srca jedne nacije.

Upravo su u obližnjem Rathmullanu Britanci oteli mladog Crvenog Hugha O ’Donnella i dovezli ga u lance u Dublin gdje je trebao izdržati šest godina najstrašnijih mučenja i patnji prije nego što je konačno pobjegao. Dogodilo se ovako:

Kako bi Donegal potčinio Sir John Perrot, britanski gauleiter*, odlučio je da će morati uništiti vojske O ’Donnell. Međutim, za to bi bilo potrebno nekoliko tisuća vojnika, a on u to vrijeme jednostavno nije imao na raspolaganju takve snage. Međutim, smislio je drugi plan. ‘Daj mi dopuštenje, ’ rekao je svojim gospodarima, ‘da isproba uređaj koji imam u ruci. Umirit ću O ’Donnell umjesto vas bez gubitka jednog čovjeka. Ako moj trik ne uspije, možemo kasnije pokušati s silom. ’ Perrotu je dana glava i on je podmitio kapetana mora, dovoljno prikladnog imena Skipper, da povede pedeset vojnika na svoj brod i otplovi u Rathmullan s tovarom bijelog vina, pretvarajući se došli su iz Španjolske. Mladi Crveni Hugh, tada samo petnaestogodišnjak, boravio je u dvorcu Rathmullan s MacSweeneyjima, a on je nevino otišao na brod s nekoliko prijatelja (Daniel MacSweeney i Hugh O'Gallagher) kako bi probali vino. Uživali su u kapetanskoj kabini kad su se odjednom pojavili britanski vojnici, zapljeskali ih o gvožđe i brod je isplovio. Trebali su provesti šest dugih godina živeći u užasnim uvjetima, uglavnom na hrani koju su morali moliti kroz zatvorske rešetke.

To je zasigurno utjecalo na smirivanje O ’Donnellsa, koji je ponudio otkupninu od 300.000 € u današnjem novcu#8217. Inghean Dubh, majka Red Hugha#8217, krila je dvadeset pet preživjelih španjolskih Armada i ponudila ih je u zamjenu za svog sina. Ova je ponuda prihvaćena i Španjolci su marširali u Dublin radi razmjene. Kad su Britanci dobili Španjolce, odrubili su im glavu na licu mjesta i odbili poštovati njihov dogovor s Inghean Dubh.

U božićnu noć 1591. Red Hugh je pobjegao s Henryjem i Artom O'Neillom, sinovima Shanea O'Neilla. Otišli su u Glenmalur, okrug Wicklow, po jakom zimskom vremenu potražiti utočište kod Fiacha MacHugha O'Byrnea, ali Art O'Neill je umro od izloženosti na putu. Red Hugh je preživio, a kasnije se uputio u očev dvorac u Ballyshannonu, okrug Donegal. Ovdje su mu liječnici amputirali dva velika prsta (ozebline).

Njegov tretman u zatvoru ispunio ga je mržnjom prema Britancima koji su zbog svojih neljudskih okrutnosti u godinama koje su uslijedile morali živote skupo platiti.

U svibnju 1592. inaugurisan je za načelnika O'Donnellovih (kliknite za čitanje o Doon Rocku), a nedugo zatim je zauzeo Sliga i nadvladao Connachta. On je udružio snage s Hughom O'Neillom i drugima i sudjelovao u pobjedi Žutog Forda u kolovozu 1598., kada su Englezi pod Bagenalom doživjeli težak poraz. Irska stvar napredovala je sljedeće dvije godine. Nakon opoziva Essexa krajem 1599. i dolaska Mountjoya u veljači 1600. godine, irsko je bogatstvo nestalo. Dugo su očekivali pomoć od Španjolske, pa je u rujnu 1601. španjolska flota ušla u Kinsale, okrug Cork, s 3.400 vojnika pod vodstvom Don Juana del Águile. O'Neill i O'Donnell odmah su krenuli prema jugu, dok je Mountjoy nastavio opsjedati Španjolce u Kinsaleu.

*gauleiter = 1. Službenik koji upravlja okrugom pod nacističkom vlašću 2. Lokalni ili sitni tiranin

Za fotografije dvoraca i sl. Pogledajte Irski ili O ’Donnell u odjeljku s fotografijama.


Rane godine dvorca Donegal

Dvorac Donegal prvotno je sagradio poglavica Red Hugh O'Donnell Prvi 1474.   Moćni keltski poglavica Donegala također je omogućio izgradnju obližnje opatije Donegal, dovršene iste godine.

Uporište poglavica

Ovaj najveći, najjače utvrđen od svih irskih galskih keltskih dvoraca, sagrađen je u obliku visoke kule.   Dvorac je bio glavno prebivalište O'Donnellovih poglavara i njihovih obitelji više od stoljeća i četvrt.

Invazijske snage

Godine 1601. dvorac su privremeno okupirale invazivne snage pod moćnom engleskom krunom.   Te iste snage također su izvršile invaziju, a zatim srušile samostan Donegal.

Crveni Hugh O'Donnell II

Crveni Hugh O'Donnell Drugi bio je tadašnji poglavica Tirconnella.   Bio je praunuk Red Hugha O'Donnella Prvog.

Usred dugotrajne opsade, herojski mladi keltski poglavica uspio je ponovno zauzeti svoj dvorac.

Originalni pod i zidovi stari 540 godina

Bitka za Kinsale, Poglavnikova smrt

U međuvremenu je španjolska vojna potpora stigla na kraj Irske, u okrugu Cork.

Čuvši za dolazak Španjolaca, Red Hugh je povukao svoje trupe iz Donegala.   Zatim je sa svojom vojskom marširao na dug put prema jugu do Corka.

Poglavica je udružio snage sa Španjolskim protiv engleske krune u povijesnoj bitci za Kinsale.

Crveni Hugh O'Donnell Drugi umro je i pokopan u Španjolskoj 1602., podižući daljnju vojnu potporu za irsku slobodu.

Dvorac je spaljen

Prije svog odlaska, O'Donnellov poglavica dramatično je spalio svoj dvorac kako bi bio beskoristan ako ga neprijatelj ponovno zauzme.

Svakako, samo nekoliko godina kasnije ono što je ostalo od dvorca ponovno je palo pod vlast engleske krune, koja je do tada imala potpunu kontrolu nad Irskom.


Tko je bio Red Hugh O & rsquoDonnell? & Lsquofiery & rsquo simbol galskog otpora

Red Hugh O'Donnell (Ó Domhnaill) predstavljen je uz Hugha O'Neilla, grofa od Tyronea, u predstavi Brian Friel, Making History, koju je 1988. prvi put izvela kazališna družina Field Day.

U predstavi Friel nas poziva da zamislimo lik i osobnost Red Hugha neposredno nakon njegova odvažnog bijega iz dvorca Dublin, gdje su ga engleski dužnosnici zatočili četiri godine, a prije početka Devetogodišnjeg rata (1594.-1603.) Borio se između Elizabete I. i ti galski gospodari koji su rezultirali završetkom engleskog osvajanja Irske.

Friel je mladog Crvenog Hugha prikazao kao vatrenog, svojeglavog, bistrog, strastvenog, predanog katoličanstvu i očuvanju vrijednosti, jezika i kulture galskog svijeta u kojem je rođen i odgojen.

Iznad svega, odlučnost da Irsku oslobodi engleskih gospodara natjerala je Red Hugha, koji se udružio s O'Neillom i drugim lokalnim gospodarima, te zatražio diplomatsku i vojnu pomoć od španjolskog habsburškog kralja, Filipa III.

Povezano

Iako ograničeni i često pristrani protiv Red Hugha, postojeći povijesni zapisi uvelike potvrđuju Frielovo predstavljanje. Također ponovno osvajaju složenost visoko militariziranog svijeta Red Hugha, gdje su lokalni gospodari napadali stoku i susjedne gospodare potčinili, a Red Hughu pokazuju kao lukavog pregovarača, djelotvornog i pragmatičnog posrednika u moći i hrabrog vojnika.

Ne postoji postojeći portret ili vizualni prikaz Red Hugha iako je suvremenik sugerirao da je on "iznad srednje visine, snažan, zgodan, dobro građen".

Ako se otkrije netaknut, kostur Red Hugha otkrit će mnogo o njegovu rastu i visini, a možda će i dati dokaze ako je bolovao od dječjih bolesti, pothranjenosti, ozljeda (osim velikih nožnih prstiju koje je izgubio zbog promrzlina nakon bijega sredinom zime 1591. iz dvorca Dublin ) ili prijeloma, mogućnost povezana s njegovim borilačkim načinom života. Tehnologija bi istraživačima mogla omogućiti da ponovno stvore neke njegove crte lica i zamisle kako je izgledao.

Molekularna analiza, osobito njegovih zubi, mogla bi dati uvid u to što je jeo i je li se njegova prehrana promijenila s vremenom. Izuzetno, to će nam reći koliko je imao godina kada su ga odbili od djeteta kao beba, te će tako dati uvid u galske žene, koje toliko nedostaju u povijesnim zapisima.

Whatever important discoveries science might hold about unlocking Red Hugh’s life, it will be important to find an appropriate and dignified resting place for a man who for centuries has symbolised resistance and Gaelic identity. That moment might be marked with a performance of Making History by Brian Friel, another great Donegal man.

* Jane Ohlmeyer is Erasmus Smiths Professor of Modern History and Chair of the Irish Research Council


Interview with Hugh O’Donnell, designer of The Troubles – Shadow War in Northern Ireland 1964-1998, coming to Kickstarter in March

The Troubles po Compass Games is a COIN inspired, multi-faction treatment of the over 30-year’s conflict in Norther Ireland. I had a privilege to provide more information about the game as well as some of the artwork in may previous article: About the The Troubles – Shadow War in Northern Ireland 1964-1998.

Today I would like to present my interview with Hugh O’Donnell, designer of this soon-to-hit the Kickstarter game. We can learn more about the game, its mechanics as well as assumptions which were a groundwork for some of the game concepts. And what is also important, Hugh pretty openly and directly addresses the question about the game topic which might seem disturbing for some of the potential players.

Michal: Please tell us a little about yourself Hugh. What do you do for a living, what games do you play?

Hugh: I teach Secondary English. I enjoy mountain biking and reading – oh, and I occasionally find time to enjoy games. I love Advanced Squad Leader (and we have a small club at the school, which is on hiatus due to the current pandemic) but mostly I enjoy games with a narrative we have had several groups playing DnD 5 th Edition, Elite Dangerous, Traveller, Tales from the Loop, Numenera…

Michal: Now, as for the game, what inspired “The Troubles”?

Hugh: The game found me I was not looking for this particular context: I had been involved in discussions with Volko Ruhnke about his approaches to the narrative context of ‘A Distant Plain’, and the period of time in which the Troubles took place has a very special, but complex narrative that I felt belonged to the COIN series, although no longer formally classified as a member of the COIN family, scheduled to be published by Compass Games.

Michal: What are the key components of the game?

Hugh: For me, it has to be two key elements: the 250+ Narrative Event Cards, each with substantial supporting contextualization: deploying the narrative is – for me – the most important feature of this title. Secondly, the Political Factions – they weave the necessary complexities of ideology, international relations, and sectarianism the politics permeate the urban and rural landscape, reminding us that this significant period of unrest lasted for four decades, and saw the British Army undertake its longest deployment in its history – and on its own streets.

Michal: Can you elaborate a little about the game mechanics?

Hugh: The Troubles is a 1- to 6-player board game depicting Paramilitary and Security Force conflict against the foreground of political affairs in Northern Ireland. Each player takes the role of a Faction seeking to guide Northern Irish affairs: the British Forces (including the UDR), the Royal Ulster Constabulary (the RUC was the Government security force), the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), the Loyalist Paramilitaries (LOY), the Nationalist (NAT) politicians or the Unionist (UNI) politicians.

Using military, political, and economic actions and exploiting various events, players build and manoeuvre forces to influence or control the electorate, or otherwise achieve their Faction’s aims. A deck of cards regulates turn order, events, victory checks, and other processes. The rules can run non-player Factions, enabling solitaire, 2-player, or multi-player games.

The Troubles—unlike many card-assisted war games—does not use hands of cards. Instead, cards are played from the deck one at time, with one card ahead revealed to all players. Each Event card depicts a historical event and shows the order in which the Factions become Eligible to choose between the card’s Event or one of a menu of Operations and Special Activities. Executing an Event or Operation carries the penalty of rendering that Faction Ineligible to do so on the next card.

General Election cards mixed in with the Event Cards provide periodic opportunities for instant wins and for activities such as collecting resources and influencing popular sympathies.

Michal: How do players determine victory?

Hugh: There are clear Victory Conditions (VCs) however, as history has demonstrated, VCs are malleable and there are multiple dependencies across Factions. For example: the Unionist Faction may seek support from their political opposition, the Nationalist Faction, when Direct Rule is being threatened by Great Britain as a result of increasing civil disorder. Joining forces with the Unionists would see the Nationalists achieve one of its VCs, Power-Sharing (participating in Government), but they would then share the VC of the UNI Faction: eradication of both the LOY and IRA factions, or bring them to Peace. The IRA, ideologically aligned with the NAT Faction, would now view them as a potential enemy, as well as one less funding source upon which to draw.

There are many similarly fascinating permutations that are historical and ahistorical.

Michal: Now, as for ”Troubles” itself, what makes this game unique?

Hugh: The context. What sets this game apart are the moral and intellectual demands placed on participants. We have the issue with timing. We have the issue of proximity – it being ‘too close to home’. These objections open avenues for real and critical discourse as to the use of games beyond them offering light touches in historical storytelling, and player expediency in ‘wars of attrition’.

This is the first simulation about the conflict in Northern Ireland, and it comes with significant demands on its approach to the subject matter: I has to be analogous in its representation of actual events, as well as the key organisations that participated over four decades of suffering.

Michal: What would you answer to the people who might thought that the topic is too fresh and disturbing to create a boardgame about it?

Hugh: My imprimatur – is my educational track record in research, design, and implementation of games-based learning to support the educational experiences and outcomes of learners ‘The Troubles’ has been undertaking with complete probity and sensitivity towards the subject matter and the people affected directly or indirectly. If CDG games and simulations and are engaging and interactive, why shouldn’t these mediums be sensitively used to study such important historical events, given the significant coverage already in the more passive mediums of print and film? Surely they too are worthy of simulation?

How long is long enough? And who decides which events do we confine to history? If we continually opt out when faced with uncomfortable situations or events, there would be very little history that we would wish to study. We should be wary of confining to history events that we – subjectively – find uncomfortable or difficult – as Professor Joe Smith posits, the function of the subject of History is “to encourage rigorous and critical thinking about the past” (History and Scotland’s Curriculum for Excellence, British Educational Research Association, 2017)

Many afflicted by the conflict are still seeking justice and are challenging the established narrative a narrative which begins peacefully, featuring a movement that began in 1964 and was highly influenced by MLK and the Civil Rights movement in the US and one that ends in democratically elected governance – and Peace.

Leave too much time, and the more high profile events often obscure the more innocuous, but no less important, as time coalesces what remains is a single and less nuanced narrative that is constantly being rewritten by either participant. The subtleties are lost. And the perpetrators of illegality evade moral judgement, even if they continue to evade justice.

The Troubles hopes to allow players to explore the How and Why of the conflict, and to foreground the motivations and contexts of others very different to ourselves understanding does not mean agreement. Exploring an important epoch of the 20th century through two political factions, two military factions and two paramilitary factions, offers a richer experience than the atypical cardboard wars of attrition.

The Troubles forces participants to consider the consequences of military engagement in urban contexts first and foremost in terms of the moral implications, not primarily expediency in achieving a VC (which change and are interdependent). Analogous with the reality of the situation, ‘Victory’ is collaboration, cooperation, and Peace. As Butler states: “In the physical environment, it is impossible for students to evade the consequences of off-kilter ethics” (Butler, p.110).

A set of 250+ Narrative Event Cards paint and foreground a more nuanced narrative of what was a political, socioeconomic, ideological and international conflict spanning four decades. And one which laid bare the bankruptcy of terrorism, and a successful demonstration of international cooperation in achieving peace and democracy.

Michal: What are the future plans for you? Any new designs / games in preparation?

Hugh: ‘1912: Hope or History’ is the working title for a prequel. I am undertaking readings in and around Ireland and Great Britain between the years 1885 and 1921/22.

Currently, I am preparing several papers and talks for academic purposes – this is my key objective for ‘The Troubles’: to develop a platform for researching the educational gains that such games/simulations can provide across a variety of academic disciplines: History, Literacy, Numeracy, Modern Studies, Politics…

Michal: Thank you very much for comprehensive information and good luck in your current and future plans!

Hugh: A privilege.

Butler, Joy. (2013). Situating Ethics in Games Education. Canadian Journal of Education, v36 n4 p93-114 2013

Joseph Smith (2016): What remains of history? Historical epistemology and historical understanding in Scotland’s Curriculum for Excellence, The Curriculum Journal, DOI: 10.1080/09585176.2016.1197138

You can find more info about the game on Authors webpage. As soon as the game’s campaign on Kickstarter launches, you may count on more coverage about the game!


From Derriaghy (1704) to St Agnes’ Church (1949)

St. Agnes Parish was born in 1955 from the historic parish of Derriaghy.

We know the name of the parish priest of Derriaghy in 1704, thanks to a penal law “for registering the popish clergy.” In accordance with this law the priests in CountyAntrim were registered at a general sessions of the peace held in Carrickfergus court house on 12 July 1704. Among them was Father Phelomy O’Hamill, aged 60, who was described as parish priest of Belfast, Derriaghy and Drum. He is stated to have been ordained in 1667 by St. Oliver Plunkett. This raises a problem. St. Oliver was not consecrated until December 1669 and did not arrive in his diocese until the following March. There could be a mistake in the year but O’Laverty identifies Phelomy O’Hamill with the “Felix O’Hannig, of good life but weak as regards learning” who was named as one of the priests of Down in St. Oliver’s report to Rome of 1 November 1670. This suggests that Father O’Hamill was already a priest before St. Oliver came to Ireland. Possibly it was not St. Oliver but his relative Bishop Patrick Plunkett who had ordained Father O’Hamill.

Father O’Hamill’s name appears again in 1708, this time in a letter of 24 March from the chief magistrate of Belfast to DublinCastle. The latter is worth giving in full for what it tells us about Father O’Hamill and about the state of Catholicism at the time.

“Sir, – In obedience to the proclamation issued by the Government and Council, I immediately issued a warrant against the Popish Priest within my jurisdiction of Magistrate of Belfast the Priest, whose name is Phelomy O’Hamol, immediately upon the first hearing of it, being ill, wrote me a letter that he would surrender himself to me, and as soon as he was able to come to town would wait upon me accordingly he came on Monday last, but being then at Antrim upon the Commission of Array for the Militia, he stayed in this town till I came home, and hath this day surrendered himself to me. I have put him into our Town Gaol and desire you would communicate this account to their Excys. the Lords Justices, where I intend to keep him till I know their further pleasure. His behaviour has been such amongst us since, and was, upon the late Revolution so kind to the Protestants, by saving several of their goods in those times, that I had offered me the best Bail the Protestants of this country affords. However, the Proclamation being positive, and no discretionary power left in us, I would not bail him. Thank God, we are not under any great fears here for upon this occasion I have made the Constables return me a list of all the inhabitants within this town, and we have not amongst us within the town above seven Papists and by the return made by the High Constable there is not above 150 Papists in the whole barony.

Favour me with an answer to this, with the Government’s pleasure therein.

Your humble servant, GEORGE MACARTNEY”.

The barony referred to was that of Upper Belfast which stretched in a north-easterly direction from Lambeg along the Antrim bank of the Lagan to the river mouth and thence north by the shore of Belfast Lough to Whitehouse. In breadth it extended from the Lagan to the range of hills which lie north-west of the river valley with an offshoot further west to Dunadry. This had been the scene of Father O’Hamill’s labours. They are now ended for Macartney’s letter was endorsed “Let him continue for the present where he is.” There he remained till his death.

Father O’Hamill was succeeded by a Father Magee until 1733 and he in turn by Father John O’Mullan who was parish priest until his death at eighty years of age in 1772. The late Canon Rogers described the activities of these penal-day priests thus:

“Living under the menace of a legal code framed for the extirpation of the Catholic religion in Ireland, they risked imprisonment and banishment to bring spiritual consolation to their people. Father Magee and Father O’Mullan were worthy representatives of their class. Tradition points to three ‘mass stations’ where they offered the holy sacrifice – a little mound on the side of Collin mountain fronting Hannahstown, a place on Bohill mountain where two ridges of earth intersected cross-wise, and a rock from which the present Rock chapel, situated close by, takes its name. There is no record of interference with either priest. On the contrary, they were often shown kindness by their Protestant neighbours. At Collin the vestments and altar requisities were left in the safekeeping of a Protestant family named Steele. More than a century afterwards the last of the Steeles presented Father George Conway, parish priest of Derryaghy, with a cow’s horn which had been used to sound the alarm when any suspicious looking person was seen approaching at Mass-time. At Derryaghy, where most of the farmers around were Protestants, the first chapel possessed by the parish was built. It was a rude structure which served merely to shelter the priest and such of the congregation as managed to crowd in. During a Jacobite scare in 1744 it was burned down, but in the following year Father O’Mullan erected a more commodious building on the site.”

In 1768 the Bishop of Down and Connor appointed a young priest to help the aged Father O’Mullan. He was Father Hugh O’Donnell and his name will be forever associated with the history of Catholicism in Belfast. The story of the opening of St. Mary’s in 1784 is too well known to be related here, and in any case belongs to the history of Belfast rather than that of Derriaghy.

During the 󈨦 rebellion the chapel at Derriaghy was burned down by a band of so-called loyalists known as ‘the wreckers’, and for the next four years Mass was said

in a barn belonging to a farmer at White Mountain. In 1802 Father O’Donnell erected a much smaller chapel on the original site. In 1785 he had built a chapel at the Rock. It too was destroyed in 1798 by ‘the wreckers’ and for many years a thatched cottage had to serve as both school and church. Near his own residence at Springbank, Hannahstown, Father O’Donnell built in 1792 a school house which was also used as a church,

Father O’Donnell died at Springbank on the first day of 1814. He had already resigned in the summer of 1812 when his parish was divided, Father William Crolly becoming parish priest of Belfast, and Father Denis Magreevy parish priest of Derriaghy. Father Charles Hendron, who succeeded in 1824, built Hannahstown Chapel. It was consecrated by Dr. Crolly on 30 September 1827. Father Hugh McCartan, who had succeeded Father Hendron at the end of 1827, erected a church at the Rock.

With three churches the people of Derriaghy were now probably as well catered for as any other extensive country parish in the diocese. There are very few records to tell the story of the parish in the nineteenth century. Here is a list of the parish priests from 1812 to 1955.

Charles Hendron 1824 – 1827

William McMullan 1845 – 1848

Michael McCartan 1848 – 1855

Bernard McCartan 1889 – 1902

Richard Storey 1902 – 1907

When Father Boyle became parish priest in 1907, Derriaghy was still a country parish. Most of his parishioners lived in the upper reaches, and of the few who did live in the city end of the parish the majority were non-Catholics. Some idea of the size and state of the parish at this time can be obtained from Bishop Tohill’s remarks when he administered Confirmation in Hannahstown in the spring of 1909.

“There are 436 Catholics in the Rock and Derriaghy, and 850 in the Hannahstown portion of the parish. The total population is, therefore, 1286 souls. Of the people generally it may be said that they attend well to their religious duties … Some Catholics living in the outlying districts of this parish are at a great distance from any of the three Churches. Hence, taking distance, the state of the weather, and the health of those absent from Mass, the number of defaulters is comparatively small . . . About 18 persons go to Communion each week 361 go every month in the parish. The members of the Sacred Heart Society go on the first Sunday of every month, and also the members of the Apostleship of Prayer. A considerable number go fortnightly in all three churches. Probably an additional number of persons living on the city borders go to Holy Communion in some of the Belfast Churches.” (Irish News 26 March 1909).

His Lordship reminded the congregation of the Holy Father’s recently expressed desire that all the faithful should be exhorted to frequent and even daily Communion. While he accepted that attendance at daily Mass was quite impossible, as most of the people in the parish lived at such a distance from the church, he felt that the great majority could go to Communion on Sundays and Holidays of Obligation.

In the schools the religious instruction of the children was well looked after, and the Christian Doctrine Society gave great assistance at the Catechism on every Sunday. Catholic Truth Society booklets were extensively read by the people, and the recently formed St. Vincent de Paul Society was doing most useful work.

The school at the Rock was in excellent state, but the church there, on which nothing had been spent for almost thirty years, was in need of extensive renovation. That the church at Hannahstown had been entirely renovated from floor to ceiling was due to the generous munificence of the Misses Hannah and Teresa Hamill of Trench House. “They had paid the cost of heating the church, of Stations of the Cross, of vestments, of statues, of chalices and of other church requisites. They had, in addition, defrayed the expense of building the wall around the cemetery outside.”

While a new school had to be built at Hannahstown at the earliest moment, both church and school accommodation had to be provided for the people living along the Glen Road and around Andersonstown. Within a short radius of the proposed site on the Glen Road there were seventy-three children of school-going age. His Lordship hoped that in the near future they would see a commodious church for the accommodation of the people in the Andersonstown district.

The ‘proposed site’ for church and school had not yet been acquired. By mid-May, however, it had been bought, and before the end of August a contract for the building of the church had been signed. On 20 October the foundation stone was laid, and a year later, on 11 October, Father Boyle recorded in his diary: “Spire of Church completed today. Flag flying.”

St. Teresa’s was dedicated by Dr Tohill on 15 October 1911. It is a memorial to the generosity of the Misses Hamill. Within a few years, in addition to paying for the renovations at Hannahstown, they had given £1,000 to endow a place for a Down and Connor student in the Irish College, Rome, had built the chapel of St. Anthony at the Mercy Convent on Crumlin Road (it was dedicated on 13 June 1910) and now had expended more than £20,000 on building at St. Teresa’s: the church, school and parochial house.

Hannah and Teresa Hamill both died in 1918 and for the next twenty years Trench House was the residence of the Bishop of Down and Connor.

St. Teresa’s gradually became the centre of the parish. As new streets were opened and houses built, more people moved into this end of the parish. But in the depression between the wars development was slow. There was still much poverty in the parish. “Gave bus tickets for Mass on Sunday,” “Distributed clothing among the poor,” “Gave St. Vincent de Paul tickets in Black’s Road and Kilwee” are only some of the depressing entries in the parish priest’s diary in the last weeks of 1933.


Remains of Irish Rebel Hero ‘Red’ Hugh O’Donnell Likely Found in Spain

In 1602 when Irish chieftain Red Hugh Roe O’Donnell succumbed to an intestinal infection while traveling to Valladolid, Spain, he was given a royal funeral by Phillip III, the King of Spain. His body was carried to his final resting place, La Capilla de las Maravillas—the Chapel of Marvels—on a horse-drawn hearse with Spanish officials carrying torches and candles around him, according to The Irish Times.

Because of the movement toward secularization in Spain in the 1800s, the chapel was lost. Recent archaeology has revealed not only walls of the chapel but two wooden coffins, human bones, and a skull which may very well lead to confirmation that the burial place of Red Hugh Roe O’Donnell has been found.

The search for O’Donnell’s grave began when Brendan Rohan of County Donegal visited Valladolid in northwest Spain looking for information that could lead him to the Irish hero’s grave. According to Smithsonian Magazine, he spent three days getting the runaround until he hooked up with the director of cultural tourism who shared Rohan’s interest.

Día 5. #ExcavaciónArqueológicaVLL
Hoy nos ha visitado la concejala de Cultura de @AyuntamientoVLL Ana Redondo
Aparece una parte de cráneo, un fémur, y algunos restos más en lo que parece ser el acceso a la Capilla de Las Maravillas.
Estamos cerca ☘️
#odonellVLL pic.twitter.com/gWflSgJkgr

— Cultura Turismo VLL (@infoVLL) May 22, 2020

Rohan was then sent to the director of archives who informed him the search was a lost cause. Later, after Rohan had returned to Ireland, the city officials he had spoken with decided to follow up and within a year they had enough information about the whereabouts of the old chapel to begin digging on Constitution Street.

Día 7 #ExcavaciónArqueológicaVLL
Hoy se ha confirmado la forma perfecta del muro derecho de la Capilla de las Maravillas. El acceso está rodeado de restos anteriores a la fecha datada de la Capilla. Comienza a coger valor la base anterior a su puerta, con restos del s.XIV-XV pic.twitter.com/wCF9HysqzF

— Cultura Turismo VLL (@infoVLL) May 26, 2020

Red Hugh was born in County Donegal in Ireland about 1572, and LibraryIreland relates that he was a lord of Tyrconnell, the early name for County Donegal. At the age of twenty, he became chieftain but was, throughout his lifetime, an enemy of England from which Ireland was fighting for its independence. When Red Hugh was sixteen, he was kidnapped by Sir John Perrot, English lord deputy of Ireland from 1584 to 1588, and held for several years in Dublin Castle with other Irish dissidents.

Illustration of Red Hugh O’Donnell. (Vonda LaVoie, 1998)

He made two escape attempts with the last being successful in 1592. During his imprisonment, Red Hugh was openly resistant to the English and had made friends with members of another powerful family in the area, the O’Neills. Henry and Art O’Neill escaped with Red Hugh on his second attempt, but they lost track of Henry in the city. When Art and Red Hugh laid down next to a rock to rest, they were covered from a snowfall. Art was dead and Red Hugh was nearly dead but was revived after several days of care in Glenmalure.

Statue of Red Hugh O’Donnell at Donegal Pier. © Copyright David Dixon CC by 2.0

He was taken north to Dungannon where he and Hugh O’Neill joined together to plan more resistance fighting against the English. Red Hugh was still being tended to medically, and as a result of lying in the snow for so long had to have his big toes amputated due to frostbite.

After his recovery, he marched into County Tyrone and destroyed it because the chieftain, Sir Turlough Luineach O’Neill, was an English sympathizer. Red Hugh was pardoned and began the life of an Irish chieftain and lord but was only able to maintain this position for two years when the new English lord deputy declared martial law in Enniskillen which was ruled by the Irishman’s friend Maguire. Red Hugh and his men marched into the town and destroyed it.

The English garrison was defeated at Drumane Bridge where the Irish Lords agreed to let the survivors leave unharmed. After this, Red Hugh participated in skirmishes across the area destroying English occupied castles for the next few years and accepting Philip III’s aid. In 1599, he and O’Neill defeated the English at Yellow Ford and a few months later defeated an English army under Sir Conyers Clifford at Ballaghboy.

As the wars continued on for several years, O’Neill and Red Hugh enlisted the Spanish for more men and weapons. Phillip III invited Red Hugh to come to Zamora in Spain but neglected to effectively fulfill his promises of support. Red Hugh traveled to Spain but died before he reached the King. If any of the bones found in the archaeological site are missing the two toes, scientists will know for sure that they have the remains of Red Hugh. If not, his descendants are ready to take DNA tests.


Gledaj video: Donegal Song - Red Hugh ODonnell (Svibanj 2022).