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Oštećenja na Avro Lancasteru

Oštećenja na Avro Lancasteru



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Oštećenja na Avro Lancasteru

Ova slika prikazuje neke štete koje je Lancaster P pretrpio za Petra neodređene australske eskadrile, jedne od eskadrila br.460, 463 ili 467, tri eskadrile RAAF -a koje su upravljale Lancasterom 22. travnja 1944. kada je došlo do ove štete. Zrakoplov je sudjelovao u napadu na Dusseldorf.

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Dana 29. kolovoza 1944. u 2110 po engleskom vremenu (2210 po danskom), ukupno 402 aviona RAF -a, uključujući i dotični Lancaster, poletjela su u bombardiranje prema Stettinu i Königsbergu. Planirana ruta prošla je sjevernu Dansku, zatim se nastavila preko Švedske i Njemačke i vratila se istim putem. Na kraju su izgubljena 23 zrakoplova. [2] [3]

Ranije se smatralo da je oboreni bombarder prvi put pogođen na povratnom letu protuzračnim topništvom u Lyngby bateriji, koja se nalazi na obali

10 km južno od Vorupøra, Thy. Međutim, kasnija istraga pokazala je da je bombarder umjesto toga prvi put pogođen na svom odlaznom letu hicima ispaljenim s radara opremljenog njemačkog noćnog lovca iznad Lodbjerga (nešto južnije na zapadnoj obali Danske). Bombarder je u to vrijeme izvodio promjenu kursa sa sjeveroistoka na istok prema jugoistoku, kako bi nastavio do regije Kullen u Scaniji. Noćni lovac vjerojatno je bio kodiran nakon što je bombarder otkrio nekoliko njemačkih radarskih instalacija u Danskoj. Mali radar Wassermann-S u Thyborønu (na obali južno od Ålvanda) pingovao je Lancaster u noći pada, kao i instalacija u Hjardemålu (u unutrašnjosti, na sjeveroistoku). [1]

Lancaster je bio dio RAF -ove grupe 8 (Pathfinder Force), broj 582 eskadrile, sa sjedištem u RAF -u Little Staughton. [4] Korišten je kao zrakoplov Pathfinder, koji je bio odgovoran za označavanje ciljeva drugih bombardera pomoću baklji i zapaljivog oružja.

Nakon što ga je noćni borac ustrijelio, Lancaster je bankario. Vjerojatno je pritom prešao preko Lyngby baterije, pri čemu je dodatno oštetio tamošnje topništvo. U plamenu i brzo gubljenju visine, prošao je nisko preko farme Udemark uz jezero Førby, 2 km istočno od Nørre Vorupør. Skrenula je pogled s jedne dine i snažno udarila u tlo pokraj malenog jezera Ålvand, a vjeruje se da je posada pokušala uroniti u jezero. Sva je posada poginula pri udarcu.

Na mjestu pada, pet velikih rupa stvorenih od četiri motora bombardera i samog trupa ostalo je i danas. [1]

Njemački zrakoplov bio je noćni lovac Junkers Ju 88 iz Luftwaffe Nachtjagdgeschwader 3, Eskadrila 4, kojom je upravljao borbeni as Unteroffizier (kaplar) Bruno Rupp. Na brodu su bila i dva druga člana posade, po imenu Eckert i Biell. Rupp je angažirao Lancaster s visine od 3600 m, i to je bilo njegovo 11. pucanje u ratu. [5] Ukupno će Rupp kasnije doseći 16 potvrđenih obaranja. [6]

Posada oborenog Avro Lancastera [7] [4]
Broj usluge Rang Ime Uloga leta Starost / godine Vjernost Nacionalnost Dekoracije
40046 Vođa eskadrile Allan L. Farrington Pilot 29 Kraljevsko zrakoplovstvo Australski
J/9481 Zrakoplovni poručnik Alfred C. Strout 1. Navigator nepoznato Kraljevsko kanadsko zrakoplovstvo kanadski
J/13758 Zrakoplovni poručnik Lorne V. Tynedale 2. Navigator nepoznato Kraljevsko kanadsko zrakoplovstvo kanadski
56185 Oficir pilot Henry Silverwood Bežični operater
Topnik
24 Kraljevsko zrakoplovstvo Engleski Odlikovana leteća medalja
1576847 Narednik leta Douglas E. J. Stevens Topnik 20 Kraljevsko zrakoplovstvo Engleski
169048 Zrakoplovni časnik Charles F. Stewart Topnik 22 Kraljevsko zrakoplovstvo Sjevernoirski Odlikovana leteća medalja
53275 Zrakoplovni časnik George R. Bradley Inženjer leta nepoznato Kraljevsko zrakoplovstvo Engleski Odlikovana leteća medalja

Ubijene zrakoplovce Nijemci su u početku pokopali u vrištinama na mjestu pada Wehrmacht. Na grobu su njemački vojnici podigli bijeli drveni križ s tekstom (na njemačkom) "Njen ruhen 7 unkankannte anglo amerik. Flieger 29.8.1944" (Engleski: "Ovdje leži 7 nepoznatih Anglo-Amerikanaca. Zrakoplovci, 29.8.1944"). [8]

Dana 3. veljače 1947. britanske su vlasti ekshumirale tijela, stavile ih u lijesove i ponovno ih zakopale na groblju Vorupør. Na istoj parceli nalaze se i posmrtni ostaci neidentificiranog britanskog vojnika, koji je u jesen 1944. izbačen na obalu na plaži u blizini Nørre Vorupøra. Prvotno je pokopan na obali Wehrmacht a zatim su ga, nakon njemačke predaje, 14. lipnja 1945. ekshumirali i premjestili u crkveno dvorište. [9] [10]

Ostaje neizvjesno koje je bombe točno nosio Lancaster, no jasno je da je prije pada srušio tri bombe preko livada farme u Koustrup Møllegaard, Sønderhå (približno 10 km južno jugoistočno od Ålvanda). Bombe, koje su vjerojatno bile foto -bombe, nanijele su štetu zgradama u tom području. Mještani su opisali intenzivan bljesak koji se privremeno pretvorio iz noći u dan, nakon čega je uslijedio glasan prasak i drhtanje. Nakon što je Lancaster pogođen, posada bi imala dobar razlog za izbacivanje bilo kakvih ubojitih sredstava nad rijetko naseljenim područjem, dijelom kako bi se spriječile žrtve civila, ali i kako bi se smanjila mogućnost da posada pogine eksplozijom ako bi se zrakoplov srušio. Foto bljeskovi su tijekom sljedećih ljeta ostavili nekoliko kratera u Koustrup Møllegaardu, a radnici na farmi imali su zadatak popuniti rupe kada nije bilo drugih poslova za izvođenje.

Agnes Møller (rođena 1909.), koja je u to vrijeme živjela na farmi, napisala je o bombama u svojim memoarima: [11]

Bilo je to čudno iskustvo. Spustili smo se u sklonište za bombe. Tamo su me nosili u poplunu koji su vezali oko mene. Tek smo ujutro shvatili koliko smo imali sreće jer sama seoska kuća nije pogođena. Bilo je dovoljno loše. Devedeset prozora je razbijeno. Dva najviša gornja prozora na zabatnom kraju seoske kuće visjela su dolje izvan mjesta gdje je spavala moja [očinska] teta. Došla je do nas, jako uplašena. Peć [zidani grijač] u blagovaonici ležala je raširena po podu, a lampa, pričvršćena na gipsani prsten, visjela je nad stolom u dnevnoj sobi s tankog konca, prstena i svega. Cijela seoska kuća bila je ozbiljno potresena, pa su kasnije stropovi od gipsa padali posvuda, a trake koje su držale crijep ili su visjele ili su se pukle. To smo kasnije otkrili. Dobili smo 1700 DKK kao odštetu, ali to naravno nije bilo dovoljno jer se šteta stalno pojavljivala.

U Nørre Vorupøru mještani su izvijestili o ogromnoj svjetlosnoj kugli tako sjajnoj da ste "mogli vidjeti šibicu u šljunku". [1]


Kako je bombarder Lancaster kraljevskih zračnih snaga vladao nebom

Ovi bombarderi pomogli su pobijediti osovinu i prikazali savezničku industrijsku proizvodnju.

Ključna stvar: Bombarderi su pomogli u iznošenju raznih ciljeva i dogodili su se u čuvenoj raciji koja se još uvijek obilježava do danas. Evo priče o ovom hvaljenom bombarderu.

Zapovjedniku krila Guyu P. Gibsonu iz Zapovjedništva bombardera Kraljevskih zračnih snaga u proljeće 1943. uručen je najzahtjevniji zadatak u njegovoj šestogodišnjoj karijeri.

Nakon što je do 24. godine osvojio Orden istaknute službe s šipkom i Istaknuti leteći križ, zdepast, skroman sin službenika indijske šumske službe preuzeo je zapovjedništvo nad jedinicom koja je novoformirana za "posebne dužnosti", eskadrilom broj 617. Bilo mu je suđeno da stekne jedinstvenu nišu u povijesti vojnog zrakoplovstva.

Ovo se prvi put pojavilo ranije i ponovno se objavljuje zbog interesa čitatelja.

Na prostranom aerodromu Scampton u blizini grada Lincolna na sjeveroistoku Engleske tog proljeća, Gibson je nadgledao intenzivnu pripremu 700 odabranih pilota, bombardirača, navigatora i naoružavača za odvažnu operaciju bez presedana-nisko preciznu raciju četveromotornog Avra Lancaster teški bombarderi. Dobila je kodni naziv Operacija Chastise.

Gibson, okarakteriziran kao časnik koji je "izvršio svoj autoritet bez očitog napora", rekao je posadi: "Ovdje ste da radite poseban posao, ovdje ste kao eskadrila za krekere, ovdje ste kako biste izvršili prepad na Njemačka, koja će, kažu mi, imati zapanjujuće rezultate. Neki kažu da bi to čak moglo skratiti trajanje rata ... Sve što vam mogu reći je da ćete cijeli dan i noć morati vježbati nisko letenje dok ne znate kako to učiniti zatvorenih očiju. ”

Ciljevi koji su držani u tajnosti tijekom obuke eskadrile bile su brane Mohne, Eder i Sorpe u njemačkoj dolini Ruhr. Još prije početka Drugog svjetskog rata planeri Ministarstva zračnog prometa vjerovali su da će uništavanje brana u kojima se skladišti voda vitalna za proizvodnju unakaziti gospodarstvo nacističke Njemačke. Neiskušano oružje odabrano za operaciju bile su sferne bombe duge pet stopa (zapravo mine) koje su sadržavale pet tona eksploziva Torpex.

Razvio dr. Barnes N. Wallis, inženjerski genij koji je izumio geodetski dizajn zrakoplova, bombe su trebale biti bačene s visine od samo 60 stopa, preskočiti površinu vode, otkotrljati se niz lica brana, i eksplodiraju pod vodom. Posljedice bi bile široko rasprostranjene poplave i štete.

Nakon nekoliko neuspjeha, "odskočna bomba" uspješno je testirana na južnoj obali Engleske. Oružje je bilo toliko nezgrapno da je Lancaster morao biti modificiran kako bi ga držao, vireći ispod ležišta za bombe. Dvojni reflektori također su ugrađeni u bombardere broj 617 eskadrile. Veliki, robusni Lancaster bio je jedini zrakoplov pogodan za jedinstvenu operaciju.

“Najprecizniji bombarderski napad ikada isporučen”

Sve je bilo spremno za misiju do nedjelje, 16. svibnja 1943., a vrijeme je bilo izvrsno. Te je noći 18 Lancastera poletjelo iz Scamptona, formiralo se i zagrmjelo na niskoj razini preko Sjevernog mora i nizozemske obale. Dva zrakoplova oborena su njemačkom protuzračnom vatrom, a dva su se morala vratiti u bazu, jedan s oštećenjima, a drugi nakon udara u more. Još jedan bombarder pao je kad su pilota zaslijepili reflektori.

Preostali Lancasteri letjeli su na mjesečini povećanjem neprijateljske oklopne paljbe i vatre iz malokalibarskog oružja do brana Ruhr. Gibson je bacio prvu bombu na branu Mohne i postigao izravan pogodak. Drugi avion pogođen je flakom i srušio se, ali treći i četvrti uspješno su trčali. Brana se još držala. No, peti napad bombardera uspio je.

Dok su se Lancasteri odmicali, Gibson je izvijestio, vrh brane jednostavno se "prevrnuo, a voda, izgledajući kao miješana kaša na mjesečini", kaskadno je padala u dolinu ispod nje.

Brana Eder bila je dobro skrivena u dolini i teško joj je prići. Jedan od Lancastera prekasno je bacio bombu koja je eksplodirala na parapetu i sa sobom odnijela avion. Nakon nekoliko neuspješnih trčanja, još su dva bombardera točno položila oružje i probila branu sa spektakularnim rezultatima. Preostala bomba eskadrile oštetila je branu Sorpe, ali nije uspjela probiti.

U operaciji je izgubljeno osam bombardera, a živote su izgubila 54 člana posade. Cijena je bila visoka, ali napad je dao veliki poticaj savezničkom moralu. Gibson je nagrađen Victoria Crossom, najvećom britanskom medaljom za hrabrost, a još 33 člana eskadrile su također odlikovana.

Razor i široko rasprostranjene poplave izazvane racijom ubile su 1.300 civila, ostavile tisuće beskućnika, oštetile 50 mostova i nakratko zaustavile proizvodnju u Ruhru. No, budući da su samo dvije brane probijene, utjecaj je bio manji nego što je planirano. Brane su popravljene do listopada 1943. godine.

Operacija je ipak ostala zapamćena kao najslavnija saveznička bombarderska misija u ratu. Službena povijest Zapovjedništva bombardera nazvala ga je "najpreciznijim bombardiranim napadom ikad izvedenim i oružanim podvigom koji nikada nije nadmašen".

Razvoj teškog bombardera "Lanc"

Avro Lancaster bio je izvanredan avion. Od 1942. nadalje bio je primarni britanski bombarder u savezničkoj zračnoj ofenzivi protiv Njemačke. Čvrst, svestran i idealno prilagođen za masovnu proizvodnju, imao je najnižu stopu gubitaka teških bombardera RAF-a i široko se koristio u dnevnim i noćnim napadima na visokoj i niskoj razini. Nosivost mu je premašila nosivost Leteće tvrđave Boeing B-17 zračnih snaga američke vojske i konsolidiranog B-24 Liberatora, a mogla je nositi i najteže bombe, od 4.000 funti do 12.000 tona “Tallboya” i 22.000 tona "Grand Slam."

Mnogi stručnjaci nazvali su "Lanc" najučinkovitijim ratnim bombarderima. Povjesničar zrakoplovstva Owen Thetford nazvao ga je "možda najpoznatijim i zasigurno najuspješnijim teškim bombardorom koji su koristile Kraljevske zračne snage u Drugom svjetskom ratu". Povjesničar William Green rekao je da veliki avion mora imati "dašak genija koji nadilazi dobro" i "sreću da se nađe na pravom mjestu u pravo vrijeme". Dodao je: „Mora imati natprosječne letačke kvalitete: pouzdanost, robusnost, borbenost i vješte posade. Sve ove stvari Lancaster je imao u dobroj mjeri. ”

Pa ipak, bombarder je nastao gotovo slučajno, nastao kao posljedica neuspjeha njegovog prethodnika, dvomotornog Avra ​​Manchester. Priča o Lancasteru započela je 1936. godine, kada je standardni noćni bombarder RAF-a bio nezgrapni, uskoro zastarjeli Handley Page Heyford, dvomotorni dvokrilac, i kada je Zapovjedništvo bombardera posjedovalo samo jednu eskadrilu hemondonskih bombardera Hendon. Ministarstvo zračnog prometa tog je rujna sastavilo specifikacije za dvomotorni teški bombarder, a Sir Edwin A.V. Roe, pionir dizajna zrakoplova, predložio je dizajn koji su pokretala dva „nova i neortodoksna“ motora Vulture s tekućim hlađenjem.

Nazvan Manchester, prvi put je poletio s aerodroma Manchester Ringway u srpnju 1939., postao operativan u studenom 1940., a prvi put je vidio akciju 24.-25. veljače 1941., kada je letio noćnom racijom protiv francuske luke Brest. Zamjenjujući dvomotorni Handley Page Hampden, Manchester je nosio teški teret, montirao osam mitraljeza i imao maksimalni domet od 1630 milja, ali to je bilo "jedno od velikih razočaranja RAF-a", rekao je Thetford. Njegov motor pokazao se nepouzdanim i postigao je najveću stopu gubitaka od svih bombardera RAF -a u ratu, pa je uklonjen iz borbene službe u lipnju 1942. godine.

No, Roeov dizajnerski tim, na čelu s briljantnim Royem Chadwickom, i dalje je vjerovao da bi s poboljšanjima Manchester mogao postati učinkovit bombarder. Dakle, na osnovni su okvir ugrađena četiri motora Rolls-Royce Merlin od 1.460 konjskih snaga i rođen je Lancaster. Pilotirao kapetan H.A. "Sam" Brown, prototip, prvi je put poletio 9. siječnja 1941. iz Woodforda u Northamptonshireu. Testirano je uspješno, radovi na montažnoj liniji odmah su započeli, a prvi proizvodni bombarder poletio je 31. listopada 1941. Eskadrila broda 44 (Rodezija) zapovjednika krila Rodericka Learoyda u Waddingtonu u Lincolnshireu primila je božićni poklon 24. prosinca kada su tri stigli su prvi operativni Lancasteri koji su zamijenili zastarjeli Hampden.

Masivni Lancaster sa srednjim krilima imao je dvostruki rep i četiri karakteristične kupole (nos, rep, leđna i trbušna), sve montirane dvostruke mitraljeze kalibra .303, osim položaja repa, koji je imao četiri .303. Ventralna kupola je ubrzo uklonjena. Prostrani utor za bombe omogućio je zrakoplovu da primi minimalno 14.000 tona korisnog tereta, nadmašivši takve druge "teške" komande bombardera kao što su Short Stirling i radni konj Handley Page Halifax.

Lancaster je s sedam članova posade bio relativno jednostavan za upravljanje, održavanje i popravak. Imao je najveću brzinu od 287 milja na sat, domet od 1.660 milja i strop od 24.500 stopa. Većina zrakoplova bila je opremljena H2S radarskom "limenkom", koja je stršila ispod trupa. Nekoliko montiranih mitraljeza kalibra .50. Neki su imali izbočena vrata u ulazu kako bi nosili bombe Tallboy i Grand Slam, a druge su pokretali radijalni motori Merlin ili Bristol Hercules izrađeni od Packarda.

Za razliku od većine borbenih zrakoplova izgrađenih u velikom broju, Lancaster se tijekom rata malo promijenio. Velike modifikacije dizajna pokazale su se nepotrebnima. Na kraju je proizvedeno 7.377 bombardera, uključujući 430 proizvedenih u Kanadi. Lancaster je postao dominantan zrakoplov zapovjedništva bombardera RAF-a i oslonac njegovih redovitih noćnih racija nad okupiranom Europom i Njemačkom. Do siječnja 1942. u Zapovjedništvu bombardera bilo je 256 Lancastera od 882 teška, a godinu dana kasnije 652 Lancastera od 1.093 bombardera. "Lanc" su voljele njegove posade.


Avro Lancaster I. dio

Nitko ne bi osporio tvrdnju da je Avro 683 Lancaster bio najbolji britanski teški bombarder Drugoga svjetskog rata. Nekolicina bi čak tvrdila da je to bio najbolji teški bombarder koji je služio na bilo kojoj strani tijekom sukoba, pa je stoga čudno prisjetiti se da je nastao u neuspješnom dvomotornom Avro 679 Manchester.

Međutim, nije posve točno reći da je Lancaster bio praktički četveromotorni Manchester, a četveromotorna instalacija u osnovnom okviru bila je predložena prije početka isporuke Manchester RAF-u. No, prototip Lancastera zapravo je bio preuređeni zrakoplov Manchester s povećanim središnjim dijelom krila i četiri Rolls-Royce Merlin X-a od 1145 KS (854 kW). Ovaj prototip je u početku zadržao sklop trostrukog repa Manchester ’s, ali je kasnije izmijenjen u sklop dvostrukih peraja i kormila koji je postao standard u proizvodnji Lancastera.

Prototip BT308 poletio je 9. siječnja 1941., a kasnije tog mjeseca otišao je u eksperimentalnu ustanovu zrakoplova i naoružanja, Boscombe Down, kako bi započeo intenzivna letačka ispitivanja. Drugi prototip DG595, s nekim izmjenama i motorima Merlin XX snage 1.280 KS (955 kW) za polijetanje, poletio je 13. svibnja 1941. U rujnu iste godine prvi prototip i nekoliko pilota iz Manchestera prebačeni su na br.44. (Rodezija) Eskadrila u Waddingtonu za obuku i ocjenjivanje posade. Prva tri proizvodna zrakoplova isporučena su u jedinicu sve do Badnjaka, a još četiri zrakoplova stigla su 28. prosinca. Broj 97 eskadrile bio je sljedeća jedinica koja je dobila Lancaster u siječnju 1942., a potom i eskadrila br. 207 u ožujku 1942. Novi bombarder je odmah postigao uspjeh te su poslane velike proizvodne narudžbe. U ratnim vremenima takva je brzina razvoja bila da je prvi serijski proizveden Lancaster letio u listopadu 1941., a broj djelomično dovršenih zrakoplova iz Manchestera pretvoren je u liniju da se pojavi kao Lancaster Is (od 1942. preimenovan Lancaster B.Mk Is).

Prvi ugovor Avroa bio je za 1.070 Lancastera, no ubrzo su uslijedili i drugi, a kad je postalo očito da matične tvrtke i proizvodni pogoni Chadderton i Yeadon neće moći izaći na kraj s potražnjom, druge tvrtke preuzele su zadatak izgradnje kompletnih zrakoplova . Među njima su bili Armstrong Whitworth u Coventryju, Austin Motors u Birminghamu, Metropolitan Vickers u Manchesteru i Vickers Armstrong u Chesteru i Castleu Bromwichu. Osim toga, veliki broj kooperanata bio je uključen u različite dijelove zemlje.

Lancasteri su uskoro počeli zamjenjivati ​​Manchestere, a takav je bio poticaj proizvodnje da je prijetio nedostatak Merlinovih motora. Tomu se suprotstavila licencna proizvodnja Mercinovog motora od strane Packarda u SAD-u, ne samo za Lancasters, već i za druge tipove.

Dodatno osiguranje ostvareno je na drugi način, korištenjem 14-cilindričnih radijalnih motora s 14 cilindričnim ventilom Bristol Hercules VI ili XVI koji pokreću rotacijske zračne vijke koji su se, za razliku od zračnih vijaka Merlin, rotirali u smjeru suprotnom od kazaljke na satu. Oba motora su za uzlijetanje bila ocijenjena na 1.615 KS (1205 kW). U ovom obliku, poznatom kao Lancaster B.Mk II, prototip BT310 letio je 26. studenog 1941. godine, a rezultati su bili dovoljno ohrabrujući da je ova verzija krenula u proizvodnju od strane Armstronga Whitwortha u Coventryju. Odgode su uzrokovane inzistiranjem Ministarstva zrakoplovne proizvodnje na održavanju izgradnje bombardera Whitley, no u svibnju 1942. započela je prelazak na proizvodnju Lancastera B.II, da bi se zbog oštećenja u zračnom napadu zaustavila na četiri mjeseca.

Prva dva Lancastera na Herkulov pogon dovršena su u rujnu 1942. i otišla su u eksperimentalnu ustanovu za zrakoplove i naoružanje, gdje im se kasnije pridružio i treći. Ostali Mk l iz ove prve proizvodne serije isporučeni su u eskadrilu br. 61 u Syerstonu u Nottinghamu, jedinicu za probne usluge za ovu verziju i bivšu eskadrilu Lancaster B.Mk I. Rana upotreba Lancaster B.Mk II kod eskadrile broj 61 mučila je s manjim problemima, ali tijekom šest mjeseci djelovanja eskadrila nije izgubila niti jedan zrakoplov B.Mk II te je u veljači 1943. uspjela predati punu dopuna devet zrakoplova u eskadrili br. 115 u East Wrethamu, jedinici Wellingtona u grupi 3.

Postupno su Lancaster B.Mk II počeli preuređivati ​​druge eskadrile, ali B.Mk II nikada nije uspio postići uspjeh Lancastera s motorima Merlin. Nije mogao doseći tako veliku nadmorsku visinu, bio je nešto sporiji i imao je bombu nosivost 4000 lbs (1814 kg) manje od ostalih oznaka. Proizvodnja je prestala nakon što je izgrađen 301, a tvornica Armstrong Whitworth prešla je u Lancaster B.Mk ls. Rečeno je da je postupno ukidanje Lancastera B.Mk II bilo u cilju postizanja standardizacije, jer je Handley Page Halifax B.III s Hercules motorima mogao ponuditi jednake ako ne i bolje mogućnosti, a s Lancasterom B.Mk Is , Short Stirling ’s i Halifaxovi svi u upotrebi, varijacije u zahtjevima rezervnih dijelova trebale su se smanjiti što je više moguće.

Završnom operacijom Lancaster B.Mk II upravljala je eskadrila br. 514 23. rujna 1944., ali nekolicina je nastavila služiti još neko vrijeme u poslijeratno doba, uglavnom kao probna mjesta, sve dok posljednji preživjeli nije odbačen 1950. Iako zasjenjen od svojih suvremenika s motorima Merlin, Lancaster B.Mk II nije se sramotio i postigao je u prosjeku više od 150 sati leta po zrakoplovu.

U međuvremenu su Merlin Lancasteri išli sve jače. Prototipni motori#8217s ustupili su mjesto 1.280 KS (954 kW) Merlin XXs i XXlIs, odnosno 1.620 KS (1209 kW) za uzlijetanje Merlin XXIV u proizvodnim zrakoplovima. Rane misli o ugradnji trbušne kupole ubrzo su odbačene, a Lancaster B.Mk I imao je tri kupole s hidrauličkim pogonom Frazer-Nash s osam mitraljeza Browning (0,37 inča) (7,7 mm): po dvije u nosu i srednjem gornjem leđnom položaju a četiri u repnoj kupoli. Prostor za bombe, prvobitno dizajniran za nošenje bombi od 4000 lbs (1814 kg), postupno se povećavao kako bi nosio sve veće bombe: do 8000 i 12,000 lbs (3629 i 5443 kg) i na kraju do ogromnih 9979 kg ) ‘Grand Slam ’, najteža bomba koju je nosio bilo koji zrakoplov u Drugom svjetskom ratu.

Proizvodnja Lancastera bila je relativno jednostavna stvar s obzirom na njegovu veličinu. Dizajniran je radi lakše gradnje i to je nesumnjivo pridonijelo visokoj stopi proizvodnje. Lancasteri su izgrađeni na ukupno 7.377 svih maraka. Kao što je ranije spomenuto, eskadrila br. 44 bila je prva koja je dobila Lancaster kada je prototip stigao na probe, a ova eskadrila je također prva koja je u potpunosti opremljena Lancasterima, čime je zaokružila još jedan ‘prvi ’ kada je operativno koristila tip 3. ožujka 1942. postavit će mine u “Operacijsko vrtlarstvo ” protiv Heligoland Bighta na njemačkoj obali.

Postojanje Lancastera nije otkriveno javnosti sve do 17. travnja iste godine, kada je 12 zrakoplova iz brojeva 44 i 97 eskadrila izvelo juriš bez pratnje na Augsburg, u blizini Münchena. Leteći na niskoj razini, racija je nanijela značajnu štetu tvornici MAN koja proizvodi dizelske motore na podmornicama, ali su troškovi bili visoki, sedam zrakoplova je izgubljeno. Voditelji eskadrila Nettleton i Sherwood dobili su svaki Viktorijin križ, potonji posmrtno, za vođenje operacije koja je možda potvrdila zračnom stožeru da napadi teških bombardera bez pratnje po danu nisu bili izvediv prijedlog i da je trebalo proći više od dvije godine prije SAD -a Vojno zrakoplovstvo trebalo je nastaviti s takvim napadima.

Kako su postali dostupni Merlinsi iz Packarda, tako se pojavio i Lancaster B.Mk III s tim motorima, iako je B.Mk I ostao u proizvodnji zajedno s B.Mk III s Packard-ovim motorom. Izvana se B.Mk III razlikovao po povećanom nišanskom naciljaču bombe u nosu, no bilo je nekoliko drugih razlika osim u manjim promjenama opreme.

Kako bi se povećale proizvodne linije u Velikoj Britaniji, Victory Aircraft u Kanadi 1942. je izabran za izgradnju Lancastera, a oni su bili poznati kao B.Mk Xs. Kanadski Lancasteri, pogonjeni Merlinsom koji je napravio Packard, isporučeni su zrakom preko Atlantika, a naoružanje im je ugrađeno po dolasku u Veliku Britaniju. Prvi B.Mk X predan je 6. kolovoza 1943., a 430 je izgrađeno prije dovršetka proizvodnje.

Mora se spomenuti Lancaster B.Mk VI, čija je proizvodnja predložena pomoću motora Merlin 85 ili 87, od 1.635 KS (1219 kW). Devet letjelica je Rolls Royce preradio za usporedna ispitivanja. 635 Eskadrila je nekoliko puta operativno koristila rad na tragaču sa uklonjenim nosnim i leđnim kupolama. i opremljen poboljšanom radarskom pomoći za H2S radarsko bombardiranje i ranom elektroničkom opremom za protumjeru, ali iako su performanse bile superiornije od ranijih oznaka, nisu proizvedeni proizvodni zrakoplovi.

Bilo bi točno reći da je razvoj Lancastera išao ruku pod ruku s razvojem bombi. Rani Lancasteri nosili su svoje bombe u uobičajenim ugradbenim ležištima za bombe, ali kako su se bombe povećavale postalo je potrebno, kako bi se mogle zatvoriti vrata bombi, zaljeve učiniti dubljima tako da su malo stršile ispod linije trupa. Na kraju su, s drugim razvojem događaja, vrata bombe potpuno izostavljena za određene specijalizirane vrste bombi.

S tim u vezi, najdrastičnije promjene koje je pretrpio Lancaster napravljene su kako bi se omogućilo da dr. Barnes Wallis ’s ‘bunncing bombe ’ bude preneseno u Ruhr od strane eskadrile broj 617 u napadima na brane Mohne, Ederand Sorpe, vjerojatno najpoznatiji napad s obje strane u europskom kazalištu tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata. Za tu su operaciju Lancasteru B.Mk III uklonjena bombaška vrata i prednje kupole, a svjetla ispod krila postavljena tako da se grede spajaju točno na 18,3 m ispod zrakoplova, na visini s koje se bombe su morale biti bačene da bi bile učinkovite. Devetnaest Lancastera sudjelovalo je u napadu u noći 17. svibnja 1943., napadači su probili brane Mohne i Eder zbog gubitka osam zrakoplova.

Njemački bojni brod Tirpitz napadnut je u nekoliko navrata od strane Lancastera sve dok, 12. studenoga 1944., združene snage iz brojeva 9 i 617 eskadrila nisu našle bojni brod u fjordu Tromso u Norveškoj i potopile ga s 5443 kg 8216Tallboy ’ bombe, također dizajnirao Barnes Wallis. Vrhunac u konvencionalnim visokoeksplozivnim bombama postignut je s 9979 kg (22000 lbs) ‘Grand Slam ’, oružjem dizajniranim za prodiranje u beton i eksplodiranje na određenoj udaljenosti ispod površine, stvarajući tako učinak potresa. 617 eskadrila prvi je put operativno upotrijebila ‘Grand Slam ’ operativno protiv vijadukta Bielefeld 14. ožujka 1945., uzrokujući znatna razaranja među svojim rasponima.

Konačna proizvodna verzija Lancastera bila je B.Mk VII, koja je imala američku Martin leđnu kupolu s dva mitraljeza 0,50 inča (12,7 mm) umjesto normalne kupole Frazer-Nash. Nova kupola također se nalazila dalje.

Unatoč ostalim varijantama koje su se povremeno gradile, Lancaster B.Mk I (B.Mk 1 iz 1945.) ostao je u proizvodnji tijekom cijelog rata, a posljednju je isporučio Armstrong Whitworth 2. veljače 1946. Proizvodnja je obuhvatila dvije Prototipovi Mk I, 3.425 Mk Is, 301 Mk lIs, 3.039 Mk Ill, 180 Mk VIIs i 430 Mk Xs, ukupno 7.377 zrakoplova. Proizvodili su ih Avro (3.673), Armstrong Whitworth (1.329), Austin Motors (330), Metropolitan Vickers (1.080), Vickers Armstrong (535) i Victory Aircraft (430). Došlo je do nekih konverzija između različitih brojeva oznaka.

Statistika pokazuje da je najmanje 59 eskadrila Zapovjedništva bombardera upravljalo Lancasterima, koji su letjeli s više od 156.000 naleta i bacili, uz 608.612 tona (618380 tona) visoko eksplozivnih bombi, više od 51 milijuna zapaljivih tvari. Kako se rat u Europi bližio kraju, stvarali su se planovi za izmjenu Lancastera za djelovanje na Dalekom istoku u sklopu doprinosa Zapovjedništva bombardera ‘Tiger Force ’, ali Japan se predao prije nego što se to moglo dogoditi. Brojni Lancasteri korišteni su za dovoženje ratnih zarobljenika iz Europe, a različiti zrakoplovi modificirani su za probne letove u Velikoj Britaniji i drugim europskim zemljama. Neki su isporučeni francuskoj mornarici, a drugi su pretvoreni za privremenu uporabu kao civilni prijevoz, s oznakama u području nosa i repa, pod imenom Lancastrian. U prijevozu Avro York korištena su Lancasterova krila i motori, plus središnja peraja pored dvostrukih peraja.

Nekoliko je Lancastera još uvijek preživjelo, osobito jedan primjer za plovidbu sa memorijalnim letom RAF bitke za Britaniju, a drugi koji je koristio Kanadski muzej ratnih zrakoplova u Kanadi.


Oštećenja Avro Lancastera - Povijest

Australci su letjeli i u velikom broju posadali & quotLancs & quot. Skoro 5.000 Australaca poginulo je iznad neprijateljskog teritorija u teškim bombarderima.

U rujnu 1936. Ministarstvo zračnog prometa objavilo je specifikacije u kojima se poziva na dvomotorni bombarder koji će pokretati Rolls Royceovi motori. A. V. Roe & amp Company prihvatila je izazov i razvila Avro Manchester. Tvrtka je izgradila 200, ali nije uspjela.

1940. zrakoplov je redizajniran. Novi zrakoplov, nazvan Avro Lancaster Mk I, prvi je let izvršio 9. siječnja 1941. Pokretan s četiri motora Rolls-Royce Merlin, imao je najveću brzinu od 462 km (287 mph) i raspon od 1660 milja ( 2.670 km). Naoružan s deset mitraljeza mogao je nositi 9 980 kg bombi. Bio je dugačak 21,18 m, s rasponom krila od 31,09 m.

Lancaster je ubrzo postao najuspješniji britanski strateški bombarder Drugoga svjetskog rata. Potražnja je bila toliko velika da se A. V. Roe & amp Company nije mogla nositi, a Austin Motors, Vickers-Armstrong i Armstrong-Whitworth također su počeli proizvoditi avion. U sljedećih pet godina izgrađeno je ukupno 7.377 zrakoplova.

1943. A. V. Roe & amp Company predstavila je Avro Lancaster Mk II. Novi zrakoplov, s motorom Bristol Hercules, bio je sporiji od izvorne verzije, ali važno je da je sada imao domet od 3.620 km. Tvrtka je također izgradila Lancaster Mk IB Special s modificiranim ležištima za bombe koji su joj omogućili nošenje bombi od 10 tona, poput Grand Slam-a.

RAF stanica Binbrook. Posada bombardera eskadrile broj 460 (Lancaster), RAAF. Identificirano osoblje su: 1874746 Narednik Douglas George Champkin, inženjer (RAF) (1) 408034 Leteći časnik Marmion Wilfred Carroll, DFC, Navigator (2) 414807 Leteći časnik TJ Lynch, Stražnji topnik (3) 404467 Leteći časnik Hector Ronald Harrison, bežični operater (4) 404507 Voditelj eskadrile Eric George Delancy Jarman, DFC, pilot (5) 411227 Leteći časnik Ronald Leslie Neal, srednji topnik (6) 404503 Leteći časnik Francis Gordon Jackson, DFC, Bomba Aimer (7).

Statistika : Više od 35 milijuna posjetitelja stranica od 11. studenog 2002


Oštećenja Avro Lancastera - Povijest

Datum:12-SIJAN-1950
Vrijeme:23:26
Tip:
Avro Lancaster B Mk III GR
Vlasnik/operater:236 Operativna pretvorbena jedinica Kraljevsko zrakoplovstvo (236 OCU RAF)
Registracija: SW363
MSN:
Smrtni slučajevi:Fatalities: 5 / Occupants: 5
Ostali smrtni slučajevi:0
Oštećenja zrakoplova: Otpisano (oštećeno bez popravka)
Mjesto:Tarras Farm, 2 miles SSW of RAF Kinloss, Scotland - United Kingdom
Faza: Initial climb
Priroda:Vojno
Polijetanje zračne luke:RAF Kinloss, Morayshire
Pripovijest:
Avro Lancaster B.Mk.III (GR), 236 OCU RAF: Written off 12-1-1950. Caught fire on take off and dived into the ground, Tarras Farm, 2 miles South South West of RAF Kinloss, Scotland. All five crew on board killed. According to a Statement of Squadron Leader Alan John Laird Craig to the Air Ministry/RAF Board of Inquiry into the accident:

I am Chief Flying Instructor at No.236 OCU, RAF Kinloss. On the evening of 12th January 1950, I was present at a Dining-in Night . After the Port had been passed, I was advised by Wing Commander Holgate that the Station Commander had excused my further attendance at the table since the OCU had been ordered to Stand-by a Crew to fly on a special Sortie that night. He asked me to choose a Crew for a possible flight in a Lancaster from Kinloss to Manston via Leuchars and return.

I left the Dining Room and warned the Officer in Charge of Night Flying to prepare an Aircraft for such a Flight, and started to consider the selection of a Crew. At this time, the Dinner concluded and I was joined at the Telephone in the Hall by Wg Cdr Holgate, and several of my Flying Instructors. We were then informed that the purpose of the Flight was to ferry 12 Naval Divers and their equipment from Leuchars to Manston for rescue work in connection with HMS Truculent .

There were many volunteers to form the Crew of the Aircraft, and I selected Flt Lt Harris as Captain, Flt Lt Williams as Co-pilot & Flt Lt Stevens as Flight Engineer. This selection was approved by Wg Cdr Holgate.

Nav II Cunningham & Signaller I Geal were selected by the Leaders of their Sections. The Crew members had been selected because of their ability, experience and fitness to carry out this particular Flight. About this time information was received from Wg Cdr Holgate that the Aircraft should take off as soon as possible for Leuchars.

The detailed Crew dispersed to prepare themselves for the Flight. I remained at the Telephone in the Mess to make further administrative arrangements, such as Parachutes for the Divers and victuals for the Crew & Passengers etc. When these were completed I left the Mess intending to go to the Hangar in my Car to see the Aircraft off.

As I opened the door of my Car, I heard the Aircraft Engines rev up , and reflected as to whether the Engines were being test-run, or being opened up for take-off. In a few seconds, it was clear to me that the Aircraft was taking off. Knowing that No.21 Runway was in use I decided to remain by my car to watch the final stages of the take-off over the trees at the windward end of 21 Runway.

No. 21 Runway is not normally used for Flying Training, since the trees at the windward end of the runway make a gradient of obstruction equivalent to 1 in 27 instead of the regulation maximum gradient for obstructions of 1 in 50. I saw the Aircraft clear the 1st trees by about 50 feet and climb steadily away in a perfectly normal manner. I last observed the Aircraft at between 300 & 400 feet before getting into my car.

I started the Car, backed out of its parking position, drove in front of the Mess, a distance of about 30 yards, and intended to proceed to the Hangar to check administrative details such as Duty Crew for their return. As I was turning away from the Mess, my attention was attracted by a steady and increasing bright yellow-orange glow in the sky. I stopped the Car, opened the door, and got out, whilst continuing to watch the glow. Almost immediately I heard the Engines whine as though going into fine pitch under increased power. Within 2 or 3 seconds there was a cut in noise as if the Engines had been throttled fully back, or cut.

Approximately 3 seconds afterwards I saw an explosion of flame & smoke, and heard after a few seconds the noise of the Crash. In conclusion, I have retimed my actions from the stage when I first saw the glow in the sky, to the time when I saw the explosion in the ground, and estimate that this time interval was 10 seconds , and so assessed by the Court.

Crew of Lancaster SW363:
Flight Lieutenant Richard Gwynn Williams
Flight Lieutenant Leslie George Harris,DFC
Flight Lieutenant Alfred Enos Stephens
Navigator II John Cunningham
Signaller I Ernest Geal.


A story of survival Avro Lancaster

A story of survival Avro Lancaster X lthough more than 7,000 Avro Lancasters were built, just two remain airworthy today. European airshow audiences are very familiar with the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight (BBMF)-operated Lancaster B.l PA474, but this summer, a once in a ‘Lane-time’ opportunity exists Canadian Lancasters.

As the war situation worsened Britain turned to Canada to help with aircraft production. The National Steel Car Corporation’s new aircraft plant in Malton was chosen for the construction of Lancasters and drawings arrived in January 1942. That summer Lancaster B.I R5727 was flown to Canada to act as a master tool and pattern standard.

Canadian-nunt examples were designated as Lancaster Xs and were largely built to the same specification as the B.III and fitted with Packard Merlin 38s or 224s. It was critical that there could be complete inter-changeability of all major components between British and Canadian sub-assemblies, so that modifications, repairs and battle-damage replacement could all be carried out in England.

After various management difficulties, the National Steel Car Corporation Aircraft Division was taken over by a Crown company and necame victory Aircraft.

KB700 was the first Lancaster off the production line, making its maiden flight on August 1, 1943. It was christened Ruhr Express and much publicity surrounded its naming and departure to the UK, where it arrived on September 15.

Later, after completing its 49th mission, KB700 suffered hydraulic problems on landing, overshot the runway and crashed into a piece of farm machinery. Its crew fortunately all escaped, though KB700 burst into flames and was destroyed – it was due to ceremoniously return to Canada after its 50th ‘op’.

On arriving in England, Lancaster Xs were assigned to 6 Group, the RCAF component of Bomber Command. In all 430 examples were built, with the last – FM229 – being completed in August 1945.

Post-war the RCAF found many productive uses for the low-time airframes, and they were variously modified for the respective roles given to them. The type was ceremoniously retired from RCAF service on April 8, 1964.

FM213

Today Canada is home to the largest number of surviving Lancasters, with seven aircraft on display and two more under restoration. However, the most famous of these is the CWHM’s airworthy FM213.

This airframe was built in July 1945 and was one of the last off the production line before it was shut down a month later following the completion of FM229. Initially sent into storage, FM213 was taken on strength by the RCAF on June 21, 1946 and converted to 10MR/MP (Maritime Reconnaissance/Maritime Patrol) configuration in 1951.

The famous de Havilland Canada (DHC) test pilot George Neal test flew FM213 on December 16, 1951 and it was assigned to 405 Squadron in Greenwood, Nova Scotia and given the unit code AG-J. After only 10.5 hours of test flying it was heavily damaged on its ferry flight to Greenwood when it stopped in Trenton, Ontario.

The pilot chosen to ferry the Lanc to Greenwood had flown only 10 hours dual and one-hour solo and while landing in a gusty crosswind in Trenton the starboard tyre blew after his third bounce and the starboard landing gear collapsed in the ensuing groundloop!

FM213 was dismantled and shipped to DHC and put in storage until 1952 when a new centre section was acquired in Penhold, Alberta from a farmer who had purchased Lancaster X KB895 and intended to convert it into a tool shed!

The centre section was subsequently shipped to de Havilland and FM213 was rebuilt with the fuselage of KB895. It was test flown by DHC’s Bob Fowler in 1953.

From then on FM213 went on to lead a trouble free life in the RCAF, initially at Greenwood and later with 107 Rescue Unit in Torbay, Newfoundland.

The airframe was eventually retired on November 6, 1963 and flown to 6 RD Storage Depot at Dunnville, Ontario. By this time it had amassed 4,392.3 hours.

Saved and ‘lifted’

This should have been the end of FM213, which was headed for the scrapheap, but Bill Clancy of the Royal Canadian Legion’s Branch No 109 in Goderich, Ontario stepped in to save the aircraft.

Clancy petitioned the RCAF to obtain a Lancaster to put on display at the Goderich, Ontario airport as a memorial to the airmen who served in the RCAF. Fortunately, FM213 was mounted on her jack points to minimise structural damage and stress, a fate not shared by most Lancasters displayed in Canada.

More than a decade later, on July 1, 1977, the CWHM under the leadership of Dennis Bradley acquired FM213 from the Legion with a view to restoring it to airworthy condition. But first the museum needed to figure out how to get the aircraft to its headquarters… Luckily, thanks to the RCAF’s 450 Sqn, a Boeing CH-147 Chinook helicopter was provided and after removing the engines, propellers, outer wings and tail the Lancaster was lifted to the CWHM base at Mount Hope Airport in Hamilton, Ontario on November 5, 1979.

Obnova

Between 1979-1983 CWHM volunteers undertook a variety of work on the airframe, but as they were also working on the museum’s Fairey Firefly progress was very slow. However, in 1983 the museum received a grant from the Federal Government as well as a new Chief Engineer in the form of Norm Etheridge.

Norm was a well-respected aircraft engineer in Canada with vast experience from his days in the Royal Navy and Field Kenting Aviation where he worked on B-17s, A-26s, P-38s and Lockheed Hudsons. He became a key figure in the restoration of the Lancaster and was assigned this task upon his arrival.

The grant also allowed the museum to hire four assistants and Norm’s crew set about restoring FM213 on March 24, 1983, assisted by numerous volunteers.

Lancaster community

The restoration took many years with great corporate assistance from Air Canada, Dowty, Western Propeller and many others. The Department of Transport also supported the Lancaster restoration by issuing a Restricted Certification Authority letter on March 13,
1985. This RCA allowed the DOT in Ottawa to supervise the restoration from arms length and the CWHM to certify the Lancaster without having the endorsement on a private aircraft mechanics license.

The late John Sandberg’s JRS Enterprises also helped out by arranging a ‘gentlemen’s agreement’ to overhaul FM213’s four Merlins plus a spare. However, when JRS received the engine blocks they were found to be in such poor condition that the search was started for others. The CWHM eventually found more than 20 engines to send JRS from which they received the five overhauled units.

The first engine runs were completed on August 10, 1988, some 24 years after the aircraft had last run.

Assistance also came from the BBMF, who helped with parts and expertise and parts were also received from various Lancasters on static display across Canada.

Maiden Flight

First flight for the newly registered C-GVRA was planned for September 10, 1988 with the crew consisting of Sqn Ldr Tony Banfleld of the BBMF, co-pilot Air Canada Captain Bob Hill and Engineers Tim Mols and Norm Etheridge. Unfortunately, a magneto drop delayed the flight by a day.

However, at 13.25 on Sunday September 11, 1988 FM213 lifted off for her first flight to the applause and tears of joy from the numerous volunteers in attendance.

During her restoration FM213 had been painted in the markings of KB726 of 419 ‘Moose’ Squadron, complete with the unit codes VR-A. On September 24, 1988 flew again and was dedicated to Andrew Mynarski, who lost his life aboard KB726 and was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross.

The original crew of KB726 this historic day, as well as their families and Mynarski’s sister.was on hand on over 25 years later, the Lancaster still thrills crowds in Canada and the USA. When not on the airshow ‘circuit’ it can often be seen flying local flights out of the CWHM’s base in Hamilton, Ontario providing many with a once in a lifetime opportunity to fly in one of the two remaining airworthy Lancasters.

The CWHM offers a unique method of support, called the Bomber Crew membership. This not only entitles you to the benefits of belonging to and supporting the CWHM it also allows you to go on a one-hour flight in the Lancaster. Over the years many have taken advantage of this, and to fly in the ‘Lanc’ is a very unique, yet noisy experience!

This summer marks a once in a ‘Lanctime’ event as the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum has flown its prized Canadian-built Lancaster to the UK for a seven week long visit. The ‘Lane’ will join the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight’s PA474 at several events – be sure to catch it while you can. Many said it would never happen, a dedicated team has Ejl ensured it will.


Accident

On the day of the accident, the aircraft was to take part in a training flight. After routine checks were performed, the aircraft's engine was started up and it taxied to Runway 06 of RAF Luqa. At 11.40am, as it was making its takeoff run, the inboard port Rolls-Royce Merlin engine began to cut out intermittently, and the engine stopped working completely as the aircraft took off. [1]

With three out of its four engines still working, Smith took over control of the aircraft and attempted to return to the airfield to make an emergency landing. However, the aircraft's speed was too slow, its altitude was too low and it was turning to starboard, and less than three minutes after takeoff it crashed into a residential area in the town of Luqa. [1]

The aircraft hit a house and then crashed into St George Street, hitting three more houses in the process. The aircraft then caught fire, and some debris fell into New Street. The aircraft's tail landed in a building site where a war-damaged house was being rebuilt, while parts of the wings and engines landed on houses, in gardens or in the street. The crash left a trail of destruction of about 275 metres (902   ft) , with a number of houses being severely damaged or destroyed. [1]


AVRO LANCASTER B1&3 v BOEING B17G FLYING FORTRESS

Objavio / la autor aurora » Thu Nov 27, 2014 2:00 pm

Looking at the big picture which of the two mentioned aircraft was the more effective in WW2 ? ?

Details for Lancaster

Length: 69ft 4in (21.08m)
Wingspan: 102ft 0in (31.00m)
Height: 20ft 6in (6.23m)
Maximum Speed: 287mph (462km/h)
Cruising Speed: 200mph (322km/h)
Ceiling: 19,000ft (5,793m)
Range: 2,530 miles (4,072km) with 7,000lb (3,178kg) bomb load.
Powerplant: Four Rolls Royce Merlin XX, 22 or 24 of 1,280hp each.
Payload: Up to 22,000lb bombs carried internally. Later versions modified to carry a variety of single high explosive bombs of 8,000lb (3,632kg), 12,000lb (5,448kg) or 22,000lb (9,988kg) for special missions.
Defensive Armament: 2 x .303 Browning machine guns in nose turret, 2 x .303 Browning machine guns in mid-upper turret and 4 x .303 Browning machine guns in tail turret. Early models also had ventral turret with a single .303 machine gun. Special versions were stripped of aramament to carry increased bombloads.
Recognition: Slab-sided fuselage with heavily-framed canopy mounted well-forward on the upper fuselage. Nose, tail and upper rear fuslage contain turrets housing defensive guns. Twin tail unit with unswept horizontal surfaces. main undercarriage housed in the cowlings of the inner engines. Some aircraft had the H2S radar bulge aft of the bomb-bay while a few other carried a mid-lower gun-turret.

TECHNICAL NOTES for B17G
Armament: 13 .50-cal. machine guns normal bomb load of 6,000 lbs.
Engines: Four Wright Cyclone R-1820s of 1,200 hp each
Maximum speed: 300 mph
Cruising speed: 170 mph
Domet: 1.850 milja
Ceiling: 35,000 ft.
Span: 103 ft. 10 in.
Length: 74 ft. 4 in.
Height: 19 ft. 1 in.
Weight: 55,000 lbs. loaded-Bomb Load 4500-8000lbs depending on range

Quo Fata Vocant-Whither the Fates call

Re: AVRO LANCASTER B1&3 v BOEING B17G FLYING FORTRESS

Objavio / la autor aurora » Sun Nov 30, 2014 11:08 am

Quo Fata Vocant-Whither the Fates call

Re: AVRO LANCASTER B1&3 v BOEING B17G FLYING FORTRESS

Objavio / la autor aurora » Tue Dec 02, 2014 10:52 am

Although both planes started combat within a few months of one another, losses clearly show the Lancaster suffered a higher loss rate. While the 8th Air Force gets most of the glory and flew in to the teeth of the Luftwaffe, Bomber Command had its own issues.

The Lancaster lacked a belly gun and had flaming exhaust which made it an easy target for the Luftwaffe night fighters. Plus what ever bomber got painted with searchlights was as doomed as the formation leaders in a daylight raid. She made up for this with a massive bomb load.

The B-17 had a much smaller bomb load, both in weight and in the size of of bombs that could be carried. This was due to its very rugged low wing construction. The spar linking the two wings cut the bomb bay in half. However this wing spar gave the B-17 its legendary robustness.

Quo Fata Vocant-Whither the Fates call

Re: AVRO LANCASTER B1&3 v BOEING B17G FLYING FORTRESS

Objavio / la autor aurora » Tue Dec 02, 2014 6:11 pm

The Combat Box was a tactical formation used by heavy (strategic) bombers of the U.S. Army Air Forces during World War II. The combat box was also referred to as a "staggered formation". Its defensive purpose was in massing the firepower of the bombers' guns, while offensively it concentrated the release of bombs on a target.

The major Bomber Command innovation was the introduction of a bomber stream in which all aircraft would fly by a common route and at the same speed to and from the target, each aircraft being allotted a height band and a time slot in the stream to minimize the risk of collision. The recent introduction of Gee made it much easier for crews to navigate within the precise limits required for such flying, although there would always be wayward crews who would drift away from the stream. The hoped-for advantage from the bomber stream was that the bomber force could pass through the minimum number of German radar night-fighter boxes.

The controller in each box could only direct a maximum of six potential interceptions per hour. The passage of the stream through the smallest number of boxes would, therefore, reduce the number of possible interceptions, particularly if the bomber stream could be kept as short as possible and pass through the belt of boxes quickly. This led on to the next decision, to reduce still further the time allowed for the actual bombing at the target. Where four hours had been allowed earlier in the war for a raid by 100 aircraft and two hours had been deemed a revolutionary concentration for 234 aircraft at Lubeck, only 90 minutes were allowed for 1,000 aircraft in this coming operation.

The big fear in these matters was always that of collisions but, on this occasion, this was accepted in return for the opportunity to allow the bomber stream to pass through the night fighter boxes quickly, to swamp the Flak defences at the target and, above all, to put down such a concentration of incendiary bombs in a short period that the fire services would be overwhelmed and large areas of the city would be consumed by conflagrations

Quo Fata Vocant-Whither the Fates call

Re: AVRO LANCASTER B1&3 v BOEING B17G FLYING FORTRESS

Objavio / la autor tommy303 » Tue Dec 02, 2014 7:38 pm

It is difficult to compare the two bombers as they were almost of different generations. The Lancaster was a wartime bomber introduced in 1942 at a time when nocturnal missions were the norm and it was felt that defensive armament and armour could be kept to a minimum and thus allow the greatest possible bomb load to be carried to the target. As such it was from the beginning an offensive, strategic bomber whose role was to take the war to the enemy homeland and industrial centers. The B17, on the other hand came into being in 1938 as a result of pre-war USAAC specifications which required an extremely long range bomber capable of operating from continental US and territorial airfields as part of the defensive strategy of the US mainland and its possessions. The main idea was to strike at an enemy invasion force long before it could close with its objective. In effect the B17 was more of a medium than heavy bomber. The long range specified demanded large fuel tanks and this required four engines to lift the combined weight of fuel and the plane's relatively modest bomb load which was not much larger than that carried by twin engine medium bombers.

That the B17 was successfully employed in the daylight strategic bombing campaign in Europe, is a testament to the flexibility of the basic design which allowed for greater defensive armament and armour without losing bombload. Thus both were highly competent and successful weapons.

Re: AVRO LANCASTER B1&3 v BOEING B17G FLYING FORTRESS

Objavio / la autor aurora » Tue Dec 02, 2014 7:55 pm

The two different strategies of the American and British bomber commands were organized at the Casablanca Conference in January 1943. The resulting "Combined Bomber Offensive" would weaken the Wehrmacht, destroy German morale and establish air superiority through Operation Pointblank's destruction of German fighter strength in preparation of a ground offensive.The USAAF bombers would attack by day, with British operations – chiefly against industrial cities – by night.

Operation Pointblank opened with attacks on targets in Western Europe. General Ira C. Eaker and the Eighth Air Force placed highest priority on attacks on the German aircraft industry, especially fighter assembly plants, engine factories and ball-bearing manufacturers. Attacks began in April 1943 on heavily fortified key industrial plants in Bremen and Recklinghausen.

Since the airfield bombings were not appreciably reducing German fighter strength, additional B-17 groups were formed, and Eaker ordered major missions deeper into Germany against important industrial targets. The 8th Air Force then targeted the ball-bearing factories in Schweinfurt, hoping to cripple the war effort there. The first raid on 17 August 1943 did not result in critical damage to the factories, with the 230 attacking B-17s being intercepted by an estimated 300 Luftwaffe fighters. The Germans shot down 36 aircraft with the loss of 200 men, and coupled with a raid earlier in the day against Regensburg, a total of 60 B-17s were lost that day.

A second attempt on Schweinfurt on 14 October 1943 would later come to be known as "Black Thursday". While the attack was successful at disrupting the entire works, severely curtailing work there for the remainder of the war, it was at an extreme cost. Of the 291 attacking Fortresses, 60 were shot down over Germany, five crashed on approach to Britain, and 12 more were scrapped due to damage – a total loss of 77 B-17s. A total of 122 bombers were damaged and needed repairs before their next flight. Out of 2,900 men in the crews, about 650 men did not return, although some survived as prisoners of war. Only 33 bombers landed without damage. These losses were a result of concentrated attacks by over 300 German fighters. This loss rate was unsustainable and something had to be organised to minimise the attrition. Was this the Defensive Box. If so how was it organised??

05 March 1943 - July 1943
The battle of the Ruhr was one of three major bombing offensives launched by the Royal Air Force's Bomber Command in 1943-44. Its targets were the cities and towns of the Ruhr Valley, Germany's industrial heartland. The battle began with an attack on Essen on the night of 5 March 1943. The Ruhr, nicknamed "Happy Valley" by bomber crews, proved a difficult target to attack due to the haze generated by its industrial plants and a high concentration of German defences. Increasing numbers of German night fighters, equipped with radar and various electronic targeting devices, exacted a heavy toll on the attacking bombers. They were still able to inflict significant damage though, resulting in the relocation of a great deal of the industry located there. Post-war analysis, however, indicated that the impact upon German industry by the attacks on the Ruhr was not as great as had been believed.

The battle of the Ruhr also included renowned "Dambuster" raids mounted on the night of 16 May 1943 against three Ruhr valley dams - Möhne, Elder and Sorpe. The first two dams were breached, releasing destructive floods, but ultimately little disruption was caused to industry. The dams were repaired by October.

The concerted attacks against the Ruhr continued until July 1943 when Bomber Command's mounting losses (over 700 aircraft and crews) caused the offensive to be called off. On 11 June 1943 the command had 726 bombers crewed and operational, by the last raid of the offensive on 9 July this had fallen to 623. The battle of the Ruhr killed around 15,000 Germans and 5,000 British and Commonwealth air crew.


PLESZAK

The Dambuster Raids, or more correctly Operation Chastise is without doubt the most famous bombing mission of the Second World War (at least here in Britain). Over 75 years on everybody has heard about the ‘bouncing bomb’ and the hero pilot Guy Gibson. Most people, if they only know of one RAF Squadron, it will be the Dambuster 617 Squadron with their moto Apres Moi le Deluge (After me the flood).

The raid is well known with lots written about it, but in brief, it took place during the night of 16-17 May 1943. Nineteen specially modified Lancaster bombers took off from their Lincolnshire base at RAF Scampton in an attempt to breach the Möhne, Eder, Sorpe and three secondary target dams around Germany’s industrial Ruhr Valley.

The Möhne and Eder attacks were successful, the Sorpe Dam was a different type of dam requiring a different bombing technique and remained intact, and there was only a single unsuccessful attempt on one of the secondary target dams. Eight of the Lancasters were lost in the raid and 53 of the 133 crew members lost their lives. But the event, and a film made in 1955 has immortalised them forever. See my blog Testing and training for the Dambuster Raids – what’s left to see? (https://pleszak.blog/2018/06/13/testing-and-training-for-the-dambuster-raids-whats-left-to-see/).

The design, the bombing, the myth, the legend and the subsequent adulation is well documented, but the fate of the actual aeroplanes which made the raid such a success, less so.

Before receiving their purpose built Dambusting Lancasters 617 Squadron ‘borrowed’ 10 standard Lancasters from other 5 Bomber Group squadrons (as below) so they could immediately start their low-level training. All were returned to their original squadrons as 617 Squadron received their dedicated modified Lancasters.

Three 50 Sqn Lancasters (W4112, W4196, and W4823) which had been delivered to RAF Scampton probably in preparation for the formation of 617 Sqn were all destroyed on 15 March 1943 when a 57 Sqn Lancaster (W4834) exploded when it was having its bomb load removed.

ED763 – Avro Lancaster BIII showing ‘Two Stage Blue’ Navigation training perspex on front section of the cockpit to simulate night flying during the day when used with orange coloured flying goggles

The Avro Lancasters used were specially converted Lancaster B.III(S)’s delivered straight from the production line at Avro’s Woodford site. The ‘S’ signified that they were B.III Specials but they were also known as Lancaster Type 464 Provisioning to denote that they had been provisioned for the specific task of carrying the Vickers Type 464 ‘Upkeep’ Mine (better known as Barnes Wallis’s bouncing bomb). It is thought that they would (potentially) be returned to standard Lancaster B.III configuration – none were. For a bit more on Lancaster versions see my blog From Manchester to Lincoln via Lancaster – An aviation aristocracy family tree (https://pleszak.blog/2019/05/07/from-manchester-to-lincoln-via-lancaster-an-aviation-aristocracy-family-tree/).

In total 23 Avro Lancaster Type 464 conversions were produced, initially their registrations were suffixed with a /G to denote that these were secret and would have had an armed Guard at all times when not flying.

As stated above, 19 flew on the Dams raid and 8 of them were sadly lost. Following the raid none were fully returned to standard Lancaster B.III configuration as it was too difficult or too costly to refit the bomb bay doors.

I’ve listed below each of the 23 converted with pertinent details from delivery to their final fate, but in summary 15 continued to be used by 617 Squadron or other units, without bomb bay doors, for trials or training, some on bombing operations or SOE (Special Operations Executive) drops.

A further 2 were lost on operations after the Dams Raid and 2 more destroyed in training crashes.

8 were used in August 1943 for trials with forward rotating Upkeep mines at the Ashley Walk bombing range in the New Forrest near to Fordingbridge. The idea was that a sea launched Upkeep mine could roll up the beach and penetrate coastal defences and also potentially be used to attack strategic canals. Though the trials were successful the idea was taken no further. During the trial one of the Lancasters was caught in the slipstream of others in close formation and crashed.

A single Lancaster was used to dispose of a single Upkeep in April 1945 and 3 of the Lancasters were used on Operation Guzzle in August to December 1946 for disposing of the remaining 37 live upkeep mines in the Atlantic Ocean about 280 miles west of Glasgow.

All the remaining 11 were all unceremoniously scrapped post war.

Avro Lancaster B.III(S) – ED817

Avro Lancaster B.III(S) – ED825 during trials at Boscombe Down (note /G registration)

Avro Lancaster B.III(S) – ED906 showing later code YF-A

Avro Lancaster B.III(S) – ED909 showing later code YF-B

Avro Lancaster B.III(S) – ED912 post Dambusters

Avro Lancaster B.III(S) – ED915 showing ‘Queenie Chuck Chuck’ nose art

Avro Lancaster B.III(S) – ED932 showing later code YF-C ED932 Control Yoke and Throttle Quadrant – photo thanks to Andrew Panton (Lincs Aviation Heritage Centre)

Possibly Lancaster B.III(S) -ED933 at Reculver